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The 1956 Hungarian Revolution

Hungarian and Canadian Perspectives

edited by Christopher Adam, Tibor Egervari, Leslie Laczko & Judy Young

In October 1956, a spontaneous uprising took Hungarian Communist authorities by surprise, prompting Soviet authorities to invade the country. After a few days of violent fighting, the revolt was crushed. In the wake of the event, some 200,000 refugees left Hungary, 35,000 of whom made their way to Canada. This would be the first time Canada would accept so many refugees of a single origin, setting a precedent for later refugee initiatives. More than fifty years later, this collection focuses on the impact of the revolution in Hungary, in Canada, and around the world.

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Abuse or Punishment?

Violence toward Children in Quebec Families, 1850-1969

<p >At one time, the use of corporal punishment by parents in child-rearing was considered normal, but in the second half of the nineteenth century this begin to change, in Quebec as well as the rest of the Western world. It was during this period that the extent of ill-treatment inflicted on children—treatment once excused as good child-rearing practice—was discovered.

<p >This book analyzes both the advice provided to parents and the different forms of child abuse within families. Cliche derives her information from family magazines, reports and advice columns in newspapers, people’s life stories, the records of the Montreal Juvenile Court, and even comic strips. Two dates are given particular focus: 1920, with the trial of the parents of Aurore Gagnon, which sensitized the public to the phenomenon of “child martyrs;” and 1940, with the advent of the New Education movement, which was based on psychology rather than strict discipline and religious doctrine.

<p >There has always been child abuse. What has changed is society’s sensitivity to it. That is why defenders of children’s rights call for the repeal of Section 43 of the Canadian Criminal Code, which authorizes “reasonable” corporal punishment. Abuse or Punishment? considers not only the history of violence towards children in Quebec but the history of public perception of this violence and what it means for the rest of Canada.

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Acadiensis: Journal of the History of the Atlantic Region / Revue d’histoire de la region atlantique

Vol. 45, (2016) through current issue

Established in 1971, Acadiensis is a journal of regional history devoted to the study of Atlantic Canada, the northeast, and the Atlantic World from a variety of disciplinary perspectives. The essential source for reading and research on the region, Acadiensis is one of Canada’s leading scholarly journals. It contains both English and French research articles (with bilingual abstracts), review essays, forums, ​historiographic comments, and research notes​ and documents.

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The Agrarian Revolt in Western Canada

A Survey Showing American Parallels

Paul Sharp

The Agrarian Revolt in Western Canada was first published in 1948. A revised edition appeared in 1997. In the 1940s, two American graduate students travelled to the prairie provinces to research Canadian farm movements. One was Seymour Martin Lipset and the other was Paul F. Sharp. Subsequently, their revised dissertations were published as books. Lipset’s Agrarian Socialism (1950), a sociological study of Saskatchewan’s Cooperative Commonwealth (CCF), is the better known of the two and has remained the point of departure for scholarship on the CCF ever since. Though not as frequently cited, Sharp’s Agrarian Revolt in Western Canada is the standard work on its topic as well. It explores the history of agrarian insurgency in the prairie provinces from the turn of the century until the Depression of the 1930s. From Sharp’s perspective, his work outlined the background of both Alberta’s Social Credit and Saskatchewan’s CCF. What made it provocative at the time was its emphasis upon American influences in these earlier movements. Virtually all reviewers acknowledged its contribution, and W. L. Morton offered a particularly enthusiastic assessment of its merits. The Agrarian Revolt in Western Canada provides an essential understanding of the development of agrarian movements in the prairie provinces, and a very useful perspective on such efforts south of the forty-ninth parallel.In honour of the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of The Agrarian Revolt in Western Canada, the Canadian Plains Research Center is pleased to make this seminal study available once more to students of both the Canadian and American farm movements. New introductions by Professors William Pratt (University of Nebraska, Omaha) and Lorne Brown (University of Regina) examine Sharp’s legacy from a contemporary American and Canadian perspective respectively.

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The American response to Canada since 1776

Gordon T. Stewart

Canadians long have engaged in in-depth, wide-ranging discussions about their nation's relations with the United States. On the other hand, American citizens usually have been satisfied to accept a series of unexamined myths about their country's unchanging, benign partnership with the "neighbor to the north". Although such perceptions of uninterrupted, friendly relations with Canada may dominate American popular opinion, not to mention discussions in many American scholarly and political circles, they should not, according to Stewart, form the bases for long-term U.S. international economic, political, and cultural relations with Canada. Stewart describes and analyzes the evolution of U.S. policymaking and U.S. policy thinking toward Canada, from the tense and confrontational post-Revolutionary years to the signing of the Free Trade Agreement in 1988, to discover if there are any permanent characteristics of American policies and attitudes with respect to Canada. American policymakers were concerned for much of the period before World War II with Canada's role in the British empire, often regarded as threatening, or at least troubling, to developing U.S. hegemony in North America and even, in the late nineteenth century, to U.S. trade across the Pacific. A permanent goal of U.S. policymakers was to disengage Canada from that empire. They also thought that Canada's natural geographic and economic orientation was southward to the U.S., and policymakers were critical of Canadian efforts to construct an east- west economy. The Free Trade Agreement of 1988 which prepared the way for north-south lines of economic force, in this context, had been an objective of U.S. foreign policy since the founding of the republic in 1776. At the same time, however, these deep-seated U.S. goals were often undermined by domestic lobbies and political factors within the U.S., most evidently during the era of high tariffs from the 1860s to the 1930s when U.S. tariff policies actually encouraged a separate, imperially-backed economic and cultural direction in Canada. When the dramatic shift toward integration in trade, investment, defense and even popular culture began to take hold in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s in the wake of the Depression and World War II, American policymakers viewed themselves as working in harmony with underlying, "natural" converging economic, political and cultural trends recognized and accepted by their Canadian counterparts.

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Antisemitism in Canada

History and Interpretation

This book is the first collection of scholarly essays to treat the topic of antisemitism in Canada, a complete history of which has yet to be written. Eleven leading thinkers in the field examine antisemitism in Canada, from the colonial era to the present day, in essays which reflect the saga of the nation itself. The history of the Jewish community, its struggles and its fortunes is mirrored in the wider history of Canada, from Confederation to the present.

The contributors cast light on Canadian antisemitism through a thorough examination of old and new tensions, including Anglo-French, east-west and Jewish-Ukrainian relations. Attitudes to Jews in pre-Confederation Canada, French Canada from Confederation to World War I as well as the interwar years, and in twentieth-century Ontario and Alberta from 1880-1950 are illustrated in various chapters. Of particular interest are the examinations of such well-known figures as Goldwin Smith, the greatly admired liberal historian of Victorian Canada, Adrien Arcand, the would-be Führer from Quebec, and James Keegstra and Ernst Züdel, of more recent notoriety. Analyses are also provided of Nazism and Canadian Protestantism and Jewish-Ukrainian relations since World War II. This is a complex and contentious subject; yet, to understand the ideas and forces that have sought to undermine the Jewish presence in Canada is to understand the dangers that threaten any democratic society, and thereby to guard against them.

This compelling collection of essays offers intelligent, readable accounts of an area of Canadian history about which we know too little.

Winner of the 1993 Jewish Book Committee award for Scholarship on a Canadian Jewish subject.

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Artisans de la modernité

Les centres culturels en Ontario français

Diane Farmer

Au milieu du XXe siècle, soit au cours du passage de la société traditionnelle au monde contemporain, l’Ontario français a connu une rupture définitive dans son organisation sociale. C’est à ce moment que les Franco-Ontariens mettent sur pied un réseau unique de centres culturels, véritables foyers d’intégration d’une collectivité éclatée. Existe-t-il un lien entre ces deux phénomènes ? Pour répondre à cette question, Diane Farmer décrit les mécanismes de maintien et de transformation de l’identité franco-ontarienne en soulignant le rôle primordial du centre culturel dans ce processus. Elle analyse l’émergence et le fonctionnement de quatre centres culturels de l’Est et du Nord-Est, de même que la dynamique communautaire dans laquelle chacun inscrit son action. Cette étude lui permet de préciser les éléments qui assurent la cohésion du groupe et de cerner dans quelle mesure il y a création d’un espace francophone en Ontario.

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Au fil des ans

L'Union catholique des fermières de la province d'Ontario de 1936 à 1945

Estelle Huneault

L’Union catholiques des fermières de la province d’Ontario, connue aujourd’hui sous le nom de l’Union culturelle des Franco-Ontariennes, est, depuis soixante ans, très active dans les milieux francophones ontariens. Dans cet ouvrage, Estelle Huneault a étudié un domaine peu exploré concernant les circonstances qui ont amené les femmes rurales franco-ontariennes des années trente à se regrouper dans une association autonome, francophone et catholique. Elle a brillamment démontré que les luttes de pouvoir entre la hiérarchie catholique et les dirigeants de l’État québécois ont eu des répercussions sur l’organisation et sur les orientations qui ont été prises par l’Union catholique des fermières en Ontario, association fondée en vue de favoriser l’émancipation de cette catégorie des femmes. Adoptant une approche féministe matérialiste, l’analyse de l’auteure a permis de constater que les pouvoirs étatiques et ecclésiastiques se sont approprié le mouvement des femmes rurales franco-ontariennes pour en faire une organisation répondant à leurs conceptions du rôle des femmes dans la société.

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Au service du Canada

Histoire du Royal Military College depuis la Deuxième Guerre mondiale

Richard Preston

En 1965, le Canada reçut son nouveau drapeau ; ce événement reflétait les grands changements qui s’étaient produits au cours des vingt années qui avaient suivi la Deuxième Guerre mondiale : la société canadienne était devenue hautement industrialisée, à l’avant-garde de la technologie et cosmopolite. Ce nouveau drapeau s’inspirait de celui qui flottait depuis des années au Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), ce qui lui donnait, par le fait même, une signification qui allait bien au-delà du simple souci esthétique, le développement du RMC étant intimement lié à celui du Canada. Durant les quarante dernières années, le RMC a su s’adapter à plusieurs changements. C’est ainsi que, devenant un lieu d’apprentissage privilégié et l’une des plus importantes universités du pays, il a formé des officiers professionnels de carrière. Le RMC a su relever les défis que représentaient, entre autres, l’intégration militaire et l’unification des forces, le bilinguisme, l’émergence du Collège militaire royal et du Royal Roads Military College, l’arrivée des femmes dans des rôles non traditionnels, les aspects culturels changeants du Canada et la montée fulgurante des nouvelles technologies. Dans un monde où les préceptes de la vie militaire apparaissent de plus en plus abstraits, la compétition constante que se livrent les candidats désirant être admis au RMC est la preuve irréfutable de sa pérennité comme lieu de savoir et de leadership.

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Aux origines de l'identité franco-ontarien

Éducation, culture, économie

Chad Gaffield

Durant les années 1880, les francophones de l’est de l’Ontario ont formulé une définition de leur communauté à la fois enracinée dans le passé et issue de circonstance contemporaines. En effet, c’est par suite de la controverse sur la langue d’enseignement en Ontario qu’émergeait l’identité franco-ontarienne. À partir de 1830, l’est de l’Ontario, surtout le comté de Prescott, est le point de jonction géographique des Canadas anglais et français, la boucle de la ceinture bilingue. Ainsi, l’immigration en provenance du Québec transforme cette région, d’une zone frontière où vit une population anglophone clairsemée, en un secteur à majorité francophone. Dès lors, toute l’attention de la province se tourne vers ce comté ; la controverse sur la langue d’enseignement s’intensifie particulièrement après 1885, alors que le gouvernement ontarien adopte une série de mesures destinées à restreindre l’utilisation du français dans les écoles de la province. Chad Gaffield examine ici la question linguistique par rapport à l’histoire sociale et à l’identité culturelle de l’est de l’Ontario. Il compare directement les écrits des autorités et des divers dirigeants sociaux au XIXe siècle en Ontario avec les opinions et l’expérience réelles des résidents de cette région.

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