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Education > History of Education

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Mobility, Elites and Education in French Society of the Second Empire

Based on a unique historical source, this book examines the social origins, career expectations, and first jobs of 28,000 students in the “elitist” French secondary schools of the 1860s. Using sophisticated statistical analysis as well as conventional historical sources, the work concludes that schooling reached a wider audience than has been so far believed and that substantial social mobility occurred within the school system, but that family background, rather than educational factors, directed students’ career aspirations and achievements. It also argues that although education expanded in urban, industrialized areas, mobility did not increase in these areas. A final chapter reconsiders nineteenth–century thought concerning education in the light of findings about the social effects of schools.

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The Modern School Movement

Anarchism and Education in the United States

Paul Avrich

In this comprehensive study of the Modern School movement, Paul Avrich narrates its history, analyzes its successes and failures, and assesses its place in American life. In doing so, he shows how the radical experimentation in art and communal living as well as in education during this period set the precedent for much of the artistic, social, and educational ferment of the 1960's and I970's.

Originally published in 1980.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

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The New Southern University

Academic Freedom and Liberalism at UNC

Charles J. Holden

Established in 1789, the University of North Carolina is the oldest public university in the nation. UNC’s reputation as one of the South’s leading institutions has drawn some of the nation’s leading educators and helped it become a model of the modern American university. However, the school’s location in the country’s most conservative region presented certain challenges during the early 1900s, as new ideas of academic freedom and liberalism began to pervade its educational philosophy. This innovative generation of professors defined themselves as truth-seekers whose work had the potential to enact positive social change; they believed it was their right to choose and cultivate their own curriculum and research in their efforts to cultivate intellectual and social advancement. In To Carry the Truth: Academic Freedom at UNC, 1920–1941, Charles J. Holden examines the growth of UNC during the formative years between the World Wars, focusing on how the principle of academic freedom led to UNC’s role as an advocate for change in the South.

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On the Horseshoe

A Guide to the Historic Campus of the University of South Carolina

Elizabeth Cassidy West

Founded in 1801 as South Carolina College, the University of South Carolina is one of the nation’s oldest public colleges. Located in the heart of downtown Columbia and bound by Sumter, Pendleton, Bull, and Greene Streets, this historic landscape, known today as the Horseshoe, has both endured and prospered through more than two centuries of South Carolina’s often-turbulent history In On the Horseshoe: A Guide to the Historic Campus of the University of South Carolina, Elizabeth Cassidy West and Katharine Thompson Allen offer a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the historic Horseshoe. So much more than just a walking tour of Carolina’s historic original campus, On the Horseshoe features a wealth of archival photographs and drawings dating back to the nineteenth century and also provides a close look at the Horseshoe’s structures as well as the men and women who lived, worked, and studied in them. A numbered map with corresponding descriptions locates more than two dozen structures on the original campus and includes the history of each one, the important events that took place there, and its current use. An accompanying Web site (www.sc.edu/history/horseshoe) provides additional information and images for those who wish to further their knowledge of the university’s history. Walter Edgar, Neuffer Professor of Southern Studies Emeritus and Distinguished Professor Emeritus of History at USC, provides a foreword.

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Ontario Boys

Masculinity and the Idea of Boyhood in Postwar Ontario, 1945–1960

Ontario Boys explores the preoccupation with boyhood in Ontario during the immediate postwar period, 1945–1960. It argues that a traditional version of boyhood was being rejuvenated in response to a population fraught with uncertainty, and suffering from insecurity, instability, and gender anxiety brought on by depression-era and wartime disruptions in marital, familial, and labour relations, as well as mass migration, rapid postwar economic changes, the emergence of the Cold War, and the looming threat of atomic annihilation. In this sociopolitical and cultural context, concerned adults began to cast the fate of the postwar world onto children, in particular boys.

In the decade and a half immediately following World War II, the version of boyhood that became the ideal was one that stressed selflessness, togetherness, honesty, fearlessness, frank determination, and emotional toughness. It was thought that investing boys with this version of masculinity was essential if they were to grow into the kind of citizens capable of governing, protecting, and defending the nation, and, of course, maintaining and regulating the social order.

Drawing on a wide variety of sources, Ontario Boys demonstrates that, although girls were expected and encouraged to internalize a “special kind” of citizenship, as caregivers and educators of children and nurturers of men, the gendered content and language employed indicated that active public citizenship and democracy was intended for boys. An “appropriate” boyhood in the postwar period became, if nothing else, a metaphor for the survival of the nation.

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The Origins of the Center for Hellenic Studies

Eric N. Lindquist

A case study in American philanthropy, this book describes the beginnings of the Center for Hellenic Studies, a research institute established in 1961 in Washington, D.C. as an outpost of Harvard University. Each year eight post-doctoral fellows come from all over the world to live at the center and do research in ancient Greek literature, philosophy, or history. The idea behind this arrangement began with the preeminent philanthropist Paul Mellon's interest in finding a project to advance the humanities. Eric Lindquist traces the ten-year evolution of the center from Mellon's first general notion. In the process he portrays some of the hopes and fears for the humanities, especially the classics, in America during the period following World War II and the climate of opinion that led to the establishment of the center. The study concludes with a short account of the subsequent development of the center. This is the first published account of the origins of the center.

Originally published in 1990.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

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Party School

Crime, Campus, and Community

Karen G. Weiss

On the basis of extensive on-site research, Karen G. Weiss offers a case study of crime victimization at an American "party school" that reverberates beyond a single campus. She argues that today's party school--usually a large public university with a big sports program and an active Greek life--represents a unique environment that nurtures and rewards extreme drinking, which in turn increases the risks of victimization and normalizes bad behavior of students who are intoxicated. Weiss shows why so many students voluntarily place themselves at risk, why so few crimes are reported to police, and why victims often shrug off their injuries and other negative consequences as the acceptable cost of admission to a party.

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Paulo Freire and the Cold War Politics of Literacy

Andrew J. Kirkendall

Andrew J. Kirkendall provides a transnational, archives-based study of Brazilian Paulo Freire (1921-1997), a major Third World (as it was called in that era--now known as the developing world or even the global South) intellectual and shaper of international literacy education during the Cold War. The study serves as both the first-ever political biography of the man and an examination of the politics of literacy in Latin America and beyond in the Cold War period. Throughout the twentieth-century, when governments of many political stripes embraced literacy education as a crucial element of efforts to fuel economic growth, political inclusion, and international development, Freire pioneered a highly influential, internationally adopted “consciousness raising” approach featuring mass literacy education campaigns that sought to engage, in a political fashion, the illiterate. Freire’s often controversial campaigns--which aroused the suspicion of the U.S. government and lead to his exile from Brazil for sixteen years--played transformative roles in many places, helping to build, overthrow, and reform governments from Brazil and Chile to Nicaragua and newly independent Portuguese African countries. His pedogogical ideas were influential in the United States, as well.

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The Politics of Educational Reform 1920-1940

Brian Simon

The third volume of Britain Simon’s series Studies in the History of Education covers the crucial years 1920-1940 in which the ground was prepared for the 1944 Education Act and for most of the conflicts that have beset educational policies in Britain since the end of World War Two. During this twenty year period the Labour Party’s programmes for educational reform came into conflict with a determined Conservative resistance. Real power in the shaping of educational policies was transferred increasingly to civil servants and the long-established divided system of education was consolidated by the development of psychologists of the theory and practice of ‘psychometry’ and ‘intelligence tests’ while the privileged position of public schools was maintained intact

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The Poor and the Perfect

The Rise of Learning in the Franciscan Order, 1209-1310

by Neslihan Senocak

One of the enduring ironies of medieval history is the fact that a group of Italian lay penitents, begging in sackcloths, led by a man who called himself simple and ignorant, turned in a short time into a very popular and respectable order, featuring cardinals and university professors among its ranks. Within a century of its foundation, the Order of Friars Minor could claim hundreds of permanent houses, schools, and libraries across Europe; indeed, alongside the Dominicans, they attracted the best minds and produced many outstanding scholars who were at the forefront of Western philosophical and religious thought.

In The Poor and the Perfect, Neslihan Şenocak provides a grand narrative of this fascinating story in which the quintessential Franciscan virtue of simplicity gradually lost its place to learning, while studying came to be considered an integral part of evangelical perfection. Not surprisingly, turmoil accompanied this rise of learning in Francis's order. Şenocak shows how a constant emphasis on humility was unable to prevent the creation within the Order of a culture that increasingly saw education as a means to acquire prestige and domination. The damage to the diversity and equality among the early Franciscan community proved to be irreparable. But the consequences of this transformation went far beyond the Order: it contributed to a paradigm shift in the relationship between the clergy and the schools and eventually led to the association of learning with sanctity in the medieval world. As Şenocak demonstrates, this episode of Franciscan history is a microhistory of the rise of learning in the West.

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