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Au Québec, la formation universitaire en administration publique s’est développée dans les années 1960, au cours de la Révolution tranquille. Avant cette période clé de l’histoire de la province, les universités manifestaient peu d’intérêt pour cette forme d’éducation, jusqu’à ce qu’un jeune ministre du nom de René Lévesque entreprenne des démarches afin que les administrateurs publics soient formés à l’administration.Cet ouvrage examine, depuis l’initiative de Lévesque jusqu’aux années 2000, comment les relations établies entre l’État québécois et les universités autour de la formation des administrateurs ont mené à l’établissement du Management Public comme approche dominante de l’étude de l’administration publique. L’étude, à la fois sociologique et historique, repose sur des archives analysées ici pour la première fois. L’École des hautes études commerciales de Montréal, le Département de science politique de l’Université Laval et, bien sûr, l’École nationale d’administration publique se retrouvent parmi les acteurs clés de cette vague de modernisation de la formation des administrateurs québécois.Spécialistes de la gestion publique et fonctionnaires trouveront dans ce livre une contribution unique à la compréhension de l’évolution de la formation du gestionnaire public québécois. Ceux et celles intéressés par la sociologie de l’enseignement supérieur y verront un nouvel aspect du développement des domaines d’études appliqués dans les universités du Québec.
This volume offers original studies on the subject of medieval education, not only in the formal academicsense typical of schools and universities but also in a broader cultural sense that includes law, liturgy, and the new religious orders of the high Middle Ages. Its essays explore the transmission of knowledge during the middle ages in various kinds of educational communities, including schools, scriptoria, universities, and workshops.
Academic Freedom and Liberalism at UNC
Established in 1789, the University of North Carolina is the oldest public university in the nation. UNC’s reputation as one of the South’s leading institutions has drawn some of the nation’s leading educators and helped it become a model of the modern American university. However, the school’s location in the country’s most conservative region presented certain challenges during the early 1900s, as new ideas of academic freedom and liberalism began to pervade its educational philosophy. This innovative generation of professors defined themselves as truth-seekers whose work had the potential to enact positive social change; they believed it was their right to choose and cultivate their own curriculum and research in their efforts to cultivate intellectual and social advancement. In To Carry the Truth: Academic Freedom at UNC, 1920–1941, Charles J. Holden examines the growth of UNC during the formative years between the World Wars, focusing on how the principle of academic freedom led to UNC’s role as an advocate for change in the South.
Andrew J. Kirkendall provides a transnational, archives-based study of Brazilian Paulo Freire (1921-1997), a major Third World (as it was called in that era--now known as the developing world or even the global South) intellectual and shaper of international literacy education during the Cold War. The study serves as both the first-ever political biography of the man and an examination of the politics of literacy in Latin America and beyond in the Cold War period. Throughout the twentieth-century, when governments of many political stripes embraced literacy education as a crucial element of efforts to fuel economic growth, political inclusion, and international development, Freire pioneered a highly influential, internationally adopted “consciousness raising” approach featuring mass literacy education campaigns that sought to engage, in a political fashion, the illiterate. Freire’s often controversial campaigns--which aroused the suspicion of the U.S. government and lead to his exile from Brazil for sixteen years--played transformative roles in many places, helping to build, overthrow, and reform governments from Brazil and Chile to Nicaragua and newly independent Portuguese African countries. His pedogogical ideas were influential in the United States, as well.
This examination of key issues in New Mexico public education emphasizes policies and trends that will remain dominant in shaping schools and curricula in the state. Educational reform is a constant in New Mexico, as is the influence of politics since nearly one-half of the state's budget goes to education. But several other significant themes emerge. The vignettes included throughout the text are included to offer human interest touches to our New Mexico story.
New South Governors and Education, 1968-1976
In southern politics, 1970 marked a watershed. A group of southern governors entered office that year and changed both the way the nation looked at the South and the way the constituents of those states viewed themselves. Reubin Askew in Florida, John West in South Carolina, Jimmy Carter in Georgia, and Albert Brewer in Alabama all represented a new breed of progressive moderate politician that helped demolish Jim Crow segregation and the dual economies, societies, and educational systems notorious to the Sunbelt South. Historian Gordon Harvey explores the political lives and legacies of three of these governors, examining the conditions that led to such a radical change in political leadership, the effects their legislative agendas had on the identity of their states, and the aftermath of their terms in elected office.
A common thread in each governor's agenda was educational reform. Albert Brewer's short term as Alabama governor resulted in a sweeping education package that still stands as the most progressive the state has seen. Reubin Askew, far more outspoken than Brewer, won the Florida gubernatorial election through a campaign that openly promoted desegregation, busing, and tax reform as a means of equal school funding. John West's commitment to a policy of inclusion helped allay fears of both black and white parents and made South Carolina's one of the smoothest transitions to integrated schools.
As members of the first generation of New South governors, Brewer, Askew, and West played the role of trailblazers. Their successful assaults on economic and racial injustice in their states were certainly aided by such landmark events as Brown v. Board of Education, the civil rights movement, and the expansion of voting rights-all of which sounded the death knell for the traditional one-party segregated South. But in this critical detailing of their work for justice, we learn how these reform-minded men made education central to their gubernatorial terms and, in doing so, helped redefine the very character of the place they called home.
The Origins of the Scholarly Study of Religion in America
Religious studies—also known as comparative religion or history of religions—emerged as a field of study in colleges and universities on both sides of the Atlantic during the late nineteenth century. In Europe, as previous historians have demonstrated, the discipline grew from long-established traditions of university-based philological scholarship. But in the United States, James Turner argues, religious studies developed outside the academy.
Until about 1820, Turner contends, even learned Americans showed little interest in non-European religions—a subject that had fascinated their counterparts in Europe since the end of the seventeenth century. Growing concerns about the status of Christianity generated American interest in comparing it to other great religions, and the resulting writings eventually produced the academic discipline of religious studies in U.S. universities. Fostered especially by learned Protestant ministers, this new discipline focused on canonical texts—the “bibles”—of other great world religions. This rather narrow approach provoked the philosopher and psychologist William James to challenge academic religious studies in 1902 with his celebrated and groundbreaking Varieties of Religious Experience.
GÈnÈalogie mentale de la crise de l'Afrique Noire Francophone
Two volumes of school textbooks have notably led to self repulsion and attraction by the other peculiar to the black African elite. These are the collection put together by the missionary brothers Macaire and Grill: Mamadou et Bineta authored by AndrÈ Davesne alone or in collaboration with J. Gouin. To have an understanding of the kind of scholar produced by the foreign school in the colonies a century after, it is worthwhile retracing the itinerary, followed through readings by generation of pupils, to know the sources that fed their imaginationÖ. Out of tune with the universe of their birth, unable to efficiently concretize school teaching, but having certainly perceived that education and education alone is the new pedigree of distinction, school pupils have had to simulate the appropriation of fetishist models of knowledge without necessarily assimilating the spirit of the new civilization and much less taking the challenge to preserve self integrity redeemed through a complaisant dependence that spares from taking any action by fear of doing wrong or being called to order by the overbearing world. If not, how can one explain, in spite of the material and symbolic crises, that the elite since independence have not initiated a discursive strategy for another effective school system? Now, with aspiration or repugnance to discontinuity, the intentions are to rid Africa of the unhealthy residual French complexes in order to engage on the path of double acknowledgement and difference. This seems the most likely to restore trust amongst the peoples and to assure the endorsement of men worthy of being called such.
Girls and Sex Education before the 1960s_x000B_
When seeking approaches for sex education, few look to the past for guidance. But Susan K. Freeman's investigation of the classrooms of the 1940s and 1950s offers numerous insights into the potential for sex education to address adolescent challenges, particularly for girls. From rural Toms River, New Jersey, to urban San Diego and many places in between, the use of discussion-based classes fostered an environment that focused less on strictly biological matters of human reproduction and more on the social dimensions of the gendered and sexual worlds that the students inhabited. The discussion-based approach emphasized a potentially liberating sense of personal choice and responsibility in young women's relationship decisions, and teachers presented girls' sex lives and gendered behavior as critical to the success of American families and, by extension, the entire way of life of American democracy.
Student Movements in the American South, 1960-1970