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Challenges for the Democratisation Process in Tanzania

Moving towards consolidation years after independence?

Jonas Ewald

Publication Year: 2013

Tanzania has been independent in 2011 for 50 years. While most neighbouring states have gone through violent conflicts, Tanzania has managed to implement extensive reforms without armed political conflicts, Hence, Tanzania is an interesting case for Peace and Development research. This dissertation analyses the political development in Tanzania since the introduction of the multiparty system in 1992, with a focus on the challenges for the democratisation process in connection with the 2000 and 2005 elections. The question of to what extent Tanzania had moved towards a consolidation of democracy, is analysed by looking at nine different institutions of importance for democratisation grouped in four spheres: the state, the political, civil and economic society. Focus is on the development of the political society, and the role of the opposition in particular. The analysis is based on secondary and primary material collected between September 2000 to April 2010. The main conclusion is that even if the institutions of liberal democracy have gradually developed, in practice single-party rule has continued, manifested in the 2005 election when the CCM won 92% of seats. Despite impressive economic growth, poverty remains deep and has not been substantially reduced. On a theoretical level this brings the old debate between liberal and substantive democracy back to the fore. Neither the economic nor the political reforms have brought about a transformation of the political and economic system resulting in the poor majority gaining substantially more political influence and improved economic conditions. Hence, it is argued that the interface between the economic, political and administrative reforms has not been sufficiently considered in the liberal democratic tradition. Liberal democracy is necessary for a democratic development, but not sufficient for democracy to be consolidated. For that a substantive democratic development is necessary.

Published by: African Books Collective

Cover

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pp. 1-3

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 4-7

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Abstract

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pp. 7-8

Key words: Peace and development research, democracy, democratisation, role of opposition, opposition parties, ruling party, elections, civil society, media, trade unions, parliament, poverty reduction, substantial democracy, liberal democracy, interface between political and economic reforms, political change, public sector reforms, local government reforms, decision-making, aid, international development cooperation, accountability, role of donors, democratic culture, ...

Contents

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pp. 8-12

List of tables

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p. 13-13

List of figures

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p. 14-14

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Preface and acknowledgements

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pp. 15-20

Writing this dissertation has been a long and winding journey between important activities like raising a family and less important things like building up the Centre for Africa Studies, at G?teborg University, building up and running internationalisa-tion programmes like the capacity building programme with the Centre for Conf_lict Management at the National University of Rwanda, doing a number of other research ...

List of Acronyms

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pp. 21-24

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1. Introduction

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pp. 25-40

Democracy and poverty reduction have been two of the most used concepts in the de-velopment discourse since the late eighties. ?Democracy? is regarded as both a value in itself, and since the mid-nineties, as the best mechanism for achieving ?development? and poverty reduction. T_his thesis aims at exploring the challenges for the consolida-tion of a substantive democratisation process in Tanzania, in connection with the elec-...

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2. Theoretical framework: Democracy, democratisation and development

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pp. 41-76

T_he aim with this chapter is to show what concepts and theoretical frameworks are used in this thesis in order to answer the research question to what extent Tanzania is moving towards a consolidation of democracy. T_he chapter brief_ly points at how democracy, democratisation, development and related concepts are def_ined and used in this thesis in order to explore the challenges for the democratisation process in Tanzania. T_he f_irst ...

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3. Methodology

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pp. 77-94

T_his chapter present the methodological considerations and the type of methodology that were used in the study, in order to meet one of the major challenges in explorative and qualitative studies?how to validate the analysis. T_he f_irst section describes some of my meta-theoretical and methodological points of departure, and the following sec-tions the more specif_ic methods and strategies that have been used. ...

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4. Statism and development from above - Tanzanian development 1961-2010 A brief context

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pp. 95-122

Tanzanian development one.oldstylenine.oldstylesix.oldstyleone.oldstyle-two.oldstylezero.oldstyleone.oldstylezero.oldstyle T_he aim of this chapter is to show that the present situation in Tanzania is an inten-sif_ication of economic, political and social challenges with deep roots in history. T_he chapter will not give an exhaustive review of Tanzania?s complex pre- and post-colonial history. T_hat is well documented in the literature.one.oldstyle T_he objective is to highlight some ...

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5. Sphere 1. State/state capacity. The political institutions and challenges for democratisation within the stat

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pp. 123-174

In the following chapters I will discuss the four spheres presented in chapter two, one.oldstyle) the state/state capacity; two.oldstyle) the civil society; three.oldstyle) the political society; and four.oldstyle) the economic society in order to analyse the research question to what extent a development towards consolidation of democracy appears, based on the perceptions from various stakeholders interviewed, and supplemented with other primary and secondary information gather ...

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6. Sphere 3 and 4:Political Institutions outside the state. Media, NGOs, democratic culture and economic development

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pp. 175-218

In this chapter, we discuss a number of institutions outside the governmental struc-tures that contribute to vertical accountability and hence are a fundamental part of the process to consolidate a more substantive democracy. I will present f_indings on dif_fer-ent aspects of the civil society, the media, the NGOs and lastly on the democratic cul-ture and inclusive economic development, the third and fourth sphere in the analytical ...

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7. Sphere 3: Political Parties—challenges for the opposition

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pp. 219-256

In democratisation theory, the development of a healthy and vigorous opposition is a crucial part of a liberal democratic framework (Carothers, two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstylesix.oldstyle; Diamond and Gunther, two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstyleone.oldstyle; Gunther et al., two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstyletwo.oldstyle; Lindberg, two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstyleseven.oldstyle; Ware, one.oldstylenine.oldstylenine.oldstylesix.oldstyle). A multiparty sys-tem needs by def_inition reasonably well functioning parties, at least more than one. In this chapter we will make an analysis of the main political parties in Tanzania and the ...

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8. Political reforms and the 2000 and 2005 elections—the consolidation of electionalism, but not of democracy?

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pp. 257-282

...the two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstyle and two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstylefive.oldstyle elections? In this chapter I bring together the analysis from the previous chapters on various structur-al conditions of importance for the democratisation process through the lens of the elec-tions. T_he elections hence are used as one of the indicator of the democratisation process. T_hrough studying the election process I will bring up some of the structural impediments ...

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9. Concluding discussion

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pp. 283-315

Tanzania has after independence developed an interesting political culture that has facilitated peaceful development, despite large parts of the population suffering from continuing economic hardships. Tanzania is one of the better performers in Africa with respect to democratic governance, reforms of the economy and the public ad-ministration. The research question I have been trying to answer is if these changes ...

List of references (selected)

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pp. 316-332

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Selected list of interviews 2000-2007/2010

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pp. 333-338

SELECTED LIST OF INTERVIEWS two.fittedzero.fittedzero.fittedzero.fittedhyphen.captwo.fittedzero.fittedzero.fittedseven.fitted/two.fittedzero.fittedone.fittedzero.fittedSelected list of interviews two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstyle-two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstyleseven.oldstyle/two.oldstylezero.oldstyleone.oldstylezero.oldstylePublic Relations (CCM) April and June two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstylesix.oldstylethe Prime Ministers Of_f_ice, six.oldstyle June two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstylesix.oldstyleFinance, (CCM) five.oldstyle April two.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstylesix.oldstyle...

Appendix 1. A profile of the political Parties in Tanzania

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pp. 339-373

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Sammanfattning på svenska

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pp. 374-376

...three.oldstyleseven.oldstylefour.oldstyle three.oldstyleseven.oldstylefive.oldstyleTanzania f_irar two.oldstylezero.oldstyleone.oldstyleone.oldstyle five.oldstylezero.oldstyle ?rs jubileum sedan det blev sj?lvst?ndigt one.oldstylenine.oldstylesix.oldstyleone.oldstyle. Tanzania ?r ett land som genomg?tt snabba politiska och ekonomiska reformer och ?nd?, till skillnad fr?n det stora f_lertalet grannl?nder, lyckats undg? uppslitande inb?rdeskrig. D?rf?r ?r Ekonomin liberaliserades fr?n one.oldstylenine.oldstyleeight.oldstylesix.oldstyle och ett f_lerpartisystem inf?rdes fr?n one.oldstylenine.oldstylenine.oldstyletwo.oldstyle. Den ...

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Back Cover

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p. 377-377

This dissertation analyses the political development in Tanzania since the introduction of has moved towards a consolidation of democracy, is analysed through an analysis of nine the political, civil and economic society. Focus is on the development of the political society, and the role of the opposition in particular. The analysis is based on secondary and primary The main conclusion is that even if the institutions of liberal democracy have gradually ...


E-ISBN-13: 9789987082667
Print-ISBN-13: 9789987082506

Page Count: 376
Publication Year: 2013