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Tanzania in Transition

From Nyerere to Mkapa

Kjell Havnevik, Aida C. Isinika

Publication Year: 2010

This book is the first comprehensive contribution to understanding the character of important societal transitions in Tanzania during Benjamin Mkapa's presidency (1995- 2005). The analyses of the trajectory of these transitions are conducted against the background of the development model of Tanzanian's first president, Julius Nyerere (1961-1985), a model with lasting influence on the country. This approach enables an understanding of continuities and discontinuities in Tanzania over time in areas such as development strategy an ideology, agrarian-land, gender and forestry issues, economic liberalization, development assistance, corruption and political change. The period of Mkapa's presidency is particularly important because it represents the first phase of Tanzania's multi- party political system. Mkapa's government initially faced a gloomy economic situation. Although Mkapa's crusade against corruption lost direction, his presidency was characterised by relatively high growth rates and a stable macro-economy. Rural and agrarian transitions were dominated by diversification rather than productivity growth and transformation. Rural attitudes in favour of land markets emerged only slowly but formal land disputes showed more respect for women's rights. Some space emerged for widening local participation in forest management, but rural dynamics was mainly found in trading settlements feeding on economic liberalization and artisanal mining. The transitions documented and analysed of Mkapa's presidency, however, indicate only limited transformational change. Rural poverty is therefore likely to remain deep and the sustainability of economic development to be at risk in the future. Mkapa was, however, able to protect the legacy of peace and political stability of Nyerere, but there were nevertheless important challenges to the first multiparty elections and governance, and particularly in Zanzibar. The post- script (covering 2005 2010), indicates that the incumbent president, Jakaya Kikwete, has yet to prove that he can change this legacy of Mkapa. Co-published with the Nordic Africa Institute and the Sokoine University of Agriculture, the contributions to the eleven chapters of this book are evenly shared between Tanzanian, Nordic and other European researchers with a long-term commitment to Tanzanian development research. he book is dedicated to the youth of Tanzania.

Published by: African Books Collective

Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Tables

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pp. vii-

List of Figures

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pp. viii-

List of Boxes and Annex/Appendices

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pp. ix-

Acronyms

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pp. x-xiv

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Acknowledgements

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pp. xv-xvi

This book is inspired by an international conference organised by the Nordic Africa Institute (NAI) in cooperation with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department for Rural Development and Agroecology, in September 2005 (currently Urban and Rural Studies). The...

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CHAPTER ONE. TANZANIA IN TRANSITION – TO WHAT?

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pp. 1-18

During recent years Tanzania has been held up as a champion of structural reforms from whom other countries should learn. This is being reflected in relatively high growth rates and stabilization of macro-economic parameters. The praise comes from various stakeholders such as the World Bank...

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CHAPTER TWO. A HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSING CURRENT TANZANIAN TRANSITIONS: THE POST-INDEPENDENCE MODEL, NYERERE’S IDEAS AND SOME INTERPRETATIONS

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pp. 19-55

This chapter will identify and analyse perspectives, ideas and processes that are important for understanding the historical framework for current Tanzanian transitions. This is done in terms of identifying a post-independence model and the important political and societal compromises that...

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CHAPTER THREE. THE NORWEGIAN-TANZANIAN AID RELATIONSHIP – A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

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pp. 57-70

The history of the Norwegian-Tanzanian aid relationship can be divided into two periods. The turning point was in 1985, when the Scandinavian countries went along with the International Monetary...

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CHAPTER FOUR. AGRARIAN FUNDAMENTALISM OR FORESIGHT REVISITING NYERERE’S VISION FOR RURAL TANZANIA

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pp. 71-98

In looking back over the past half-century, it is abundantly evident that Julius Nyerere, more than any other, shaped Tanzania’s developmental path. From the 1950s, when he first led the struggle for independence, to 1985, when he finally stepped down from the national presidency, he was the...

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CHAPTER FIVE. SMALLHOLDER AGRICULTURE IN TANZANIA – CAN ECONOMIC LIBERALISATION KEEP ITS PROMISES?

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pp. 99-130

Smallholders are the main producers of food crops in Tanzania.1 In 1994/95, approximately 88% of the total agricultural area in Tanzania was under smallholdings, which accounted for 97.8% of total maize production, 97.3% of total paddy production, and almost all production...

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CHAPTER SIX. GENDER DIMENSIONS OF LAND CONFLICTS: EXAMPLES FROM NJOMBE AND MASWA DISTRICTS IN TANZANIA

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pp. 131-157

Land conflicts are a common phenomenon in many parts of Africa, partly because of the unique nature of the African land tenure system. In Tanzania for example, both customary and statutory land tenure systems are officially recognized and they operate concurrently, which sometimes...

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CHAPTER SEVEN. DYNAMISM OF NATURAL RESOURCE POLICIES AND IMPACT ON FORESTRY IN TANZANIA

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pp. 159-177

Tanzania is endowed with extensive forest and woodland resources but there has been inadequate reliable data about the coverage of these forest and woodlands. Whereas the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (MNRT) in 1998 calculated the forest and woodland coverage to be about...

CHAPTER EIGHT. TRENDS IN CORRUPTION DURING THE MKAPA ERA – WHO WANTS TO KNOW?

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pp. 179-206

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CHAPTER NINE. CHANGING AID MODALITIES AND TANZANIAN DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE PARTNERSHIPS

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pp. 207-221

Following the economic crisis of the late 1970s and early 1980s, Tanzania adopted a structural adjustment programme in 1986 under the supervision of the international financial institutions. The first phase of reforms, as elaborated in the Economic Recovery Programme (1986-89), was...

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CHAPTER TEN. CHALLENGES TO THE DEMOCRATISATION PROCESS IN TANZANIA

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pp. 223-264

Tanzania has managed to develop a reasonable degree of political stability and nationhood, in a context where most neighbours are or have been ravaged by conflicts. Thus Tanzania provides an interesting possibility to create a future beyond crises and conflicts on the African...

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CHAPTER ELEVEN. POSTSCRIPT: TANZANIA IN TRANSITION - SUMMARY AND TRENDS 2005 – 2010

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pp. 265-277

This book describes and analyses transitions in Tanzania related to the agrarian sector (chapters 4, 5 and 6), forestry (chapter 7), development cooperation (chapter 9) and governance and democratization (chapters 8 and 10) with emphasis on the Mkapa era. All the areas analysed in the...

Contributors

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pp. 279-281

Conference Participants

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pp. 283-284

Back Cover

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E-ISBN-13: 9789987081400
Print-ISBN-13: 9789987080861

Page Count: 306
Publication Year: 2010