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Pan-Africanism or Pragmatism

Lessons of the Tanganyika-Zanzibar Union

Issa G. Shivji

Publication Year: 2008

The Pan-Africanist debate is back on the historical agenda. The stresses and strains in the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar since its formation some forty years ago are not showing any sign of abating. Meanwhile, imperialism under new forms and labels continues to bedevil the continent in ever-aggressive, if subtle, ways. The political federation of East Africa, which was one of the main spin-offs of the Pan-Africanism of the nationalist period, is reappearing on the political stage, albeit in a distorted form of regional integration. It is in this context that the present study is situated. Backgrounding the major dramas of the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar this book studies the personalities involved and their politics, and includes an account of the Dodoma CCM conference that toppled President Jumbe. It is also a detailed legal analysis of the union incorporating powerful new material.

Published by: African Books Collective

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. iii-iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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pp. v-viii

ABBREVIATIONS

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pp. ix-x

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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pp. xi-xii

This book is an outcome of a Senior Scholars Research Grant awarded to me by OSSREA. The grant enabled me to do research in England and Zanzibar. Apart from the grant, OSSREA officials were extremely patient as I extended deadline after deadline. Had they applied the rules bureaucratically, this book would perhaps...

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PREFACE

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pp. xiii-xiv

The Pan-Africanist debate is back on the historical agenda. The stresses and strains in the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar since its formation some forty years ago are not showing any sign of abating. Meanwhile, imperialism under new forms and labels continues to bedevil the continent in ever-aggressive, if subtle, ways. ...

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INTRODUCTION

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pp. xv-xx

The Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar was born in the midst of debates on Pan-Africanism and in the thick of the Cold War. To this day, the Union carries its birthmarks, more of the latter than the former. The Union is the only surviving example of a political association of African sovereign states. Friends and foes alike often cite...

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1. RACE, CLASS AND POLITICS ON THE EVE OF THE REVOLUTION

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pp. 1-40

On the eve of the revolution, the Zanzibari society was deeply fractured. It was socially divided and ethnically polarised. The period of zama za siasa,1 shattered the hitherto sublime perception of Zanzibar as the islands of peace, tranquility and racial harmony. This was not only the perception of outsiders looking in, but also...

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2. THE REVOLUTION

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pp. 41-68

On 12 January 1964, the Sultanate of Zanzibar and his Government, which had come to power just a month before, was overthrown in a bloody insurrection, baptised by detractors and admirers alike as the first African revolution in this part of the continent. There is voluminous literature on how the revolution was carried out and...

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3. THE UNION

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pp. 69-99

Julius Nyerere was a great believer in African unity but as a pragmatic politician, he was also prepared for a step-by-step realisation of that unity. It did not matter to him if the process began by regional integration, whether political or economic. In this, he seriously clashed with Nkrumah who argued forcefully for continental...

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4. NYERERE’S INTERIM CONSTITUTION AND KARUME’S EXTRA-CONSTITUTIONALITY

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pp. 101-141

Western bloc countries, in particular the USA and UK, were exhilarated at the formation of the Union but kept a low profile preferring to emphasise that the Union was essentially an African initiative.1 Nyerere and Kambona also put out a request that ‘any public statements on Tangovernment–Zanzibar Union be avoided’.2...

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5. NYERERE’S VISION AND JUMBE’S CONSOLIDATION: THE BIRTH OF A PERMANENT CONSTITUTION (1972–1977)

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pp. 143-180

Aboud Jumbe was the only ‘educated’ member of the original Revolutionary Council left after Karume had got rid of other Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) intelligentsia by elimination or forced emigration. Although occupying various ministerial posts in Karume’s regime, Jumbe was not known for any independent initiative or even mild...

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6. CONSTITUTIONAL OPENING AND CLOSURE: JUMBE’S DOWNFALL (1979–1985)

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pp. 181-234

The foundation of the 1977 Constitution was the Party whose supremacy and ultimate authority pervaded the whole constitutional structure. The constitutional edifice stood on a tripod: oneparty supremacy, the two-government Union and the ‘imperial’ presidency. Since 1962 when the republican constitution of...

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Conclusion: LESSONS FOR PAN-AFRICANISM

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pp. 235-253

The Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar was born at the tail-end of the major continent-wide discourse on African Unity and Pan- Africanism. The first generation of African nationalists were driven and motivated by the ideology of Pan-Africanism. The leading light was Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of the first sub-Saharan...

Appendix 1: Legislative Powers Law

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pp. 255-257

APPENDIX 2 (i): Constitutional Law Decree No. 5; APPENDIX 2 (ii): Decree indefinitely postponing Constituent Assembly

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pp. 258-260

Appendix 3: Articles of Union

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pp. 261-264

Appendix 4: Ratification Law passed by Tanganyika Parliament

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pp. 265-272

Appendix 5: Ratification Law purportedly passed by Zanzibar Legislature

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pp. 273-281

Appendix 6: Union law postponing the summoning of the Constituent Assembly

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pp. 283-284

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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pp. 285-297

INDEX

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pp. 299-313


E-ISBN-13: 9789987081059
Print-ISBN-13: 9789987449996

Page Count: 336
Publication Year: 2008