Strong Soldiers, Failed Revolution
The State and Military in Burma, 1962‒88
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: NUS Press Pte Ltd
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FM-Strong Soldiers iFM-Strong Soldiers i 2/4/13 7:22:14 PM2/4/13 7:22:14 PMFM-Strong Soldiers iiFM-Strong Soldiers ii 2/4/13 7:22:16 PM2/4/13 7:22:16 PMFM-Strong Soldiers iiiFM-Strong Soldiers iii 2/4/13 7:22:16 PM2/4/13 7:22:16 PMThis publication was partially funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences (JSPS) as Grant-in-Aid for publication of Scientific Research Result....
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List of Tables, Figures, Illustrations, Abbreviations
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Every era has its share of âcrookedâ governments. Burma, a country at the western edge of Southeast Asia, is a perfect example of crooked government in our age. For half a century from 2 March 1962, when the tatmadaw (the Burma Armed Forces) seized power in a coup dâÃ©tat, until 2011 and the establishment of a âcivilian-ledâ (but military infl uenced) ...
Chapter 1: Introduction: A Failed Revolution Made a Strong Military Regime
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Sometimes in the course of an everyday conversation a casual comment can suddenly reveal something about a countryâs political uniqueness. Such moments in a variety of forms stimulate our thinking, and such stimuli produce new ideas that may ultimately grow into a thesis for a book. Th e impetus for this book on the relationship between the state ...
Chapter 2: Nation-State Building and the Coercive Apparatus in Modern Burma
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Nation-State Building and the Coercive Apparatus in Modern Burma 29Th e modern state was introduced to Burma in the nineteenth century when it was colonized by the British. As John S. Furnivall precisely describes, state building in Burma proved to be a diï¬ cult and unstable process because the economic motives that drove colonial state-building ...
Chapter 3: The Origin of “the Burmese Way to Socialism:” Formation of State Ideology and Military Politics
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One of the peculiarities of the Ne Win regime is that it was a leftist military regime, which stood in marked contrast to the right-wing military-led governments in power in Southeast Asia at the time. Th e Sarit-Th anom regime in Th ailand, whose rule began in 1957, and that of General Suharto in Indonesia were both staunch right-wing military ...
Chapter 4: Party-State Manqué : Ne Win’s Revolution and the Burma Socialist Programme Party
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Th is chapter will examine the party-state that Ne Win sought to build and its ultimate failure. As defi ned here, the party-state means a political system having a single ruling party that leads and controls the state. Th e regime Ne Win built after the coup of 2 March 1962 began in a hap-hazard way, but he did have existing models to follow in the party-states ...
Chapter 5: Destroy the Bureaucracy!: Transformation of the Civilian Bureaucracy in the Name of Revolution
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During the 1960s and 1970s, the same period as Ne Winâs revolution, a number of developmental dictatorships appeared in East and Southeast Asia: the administrations of Park Chung-Hee and Chun Doo-Hwan in South Korea, those of Chiang Kai-shek and Chiang Ching-kuo in Taiwan, the Ferdinand Marcos regime in the Philippines, Suhartoâs New Order ...
Chapter 6: “Winner-Take-All:” An Analysis of Burma’s Political Elite
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An element of âwinner-take-allâ exists in the political culture of Burma and refers to the following events. In the Constituent Assembly election in 1947, the fi rst substantive election in the history of Burma, the Anti-Fascist Peopleâs Freedom League (AFPFL) scored an overwhelming victory, gaining 248 of the 255 seats. Th en, in 1962, Ne Winâs regime took over ...
Chapter 7: Formation of a Garrison State:The Politics of Dictator–Military Relations
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In Chapter 4, the Ne Win regime was referred to as a party-state manquÃ© because although the revolutionary party of a party-state is usually a political group that guides a revolution, its counterpart in Burma, the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP), was much less dominant and always under the infl uence of the tatmadaw. In eï¬ ect, the political regime ...
Chapter 8: Conclusion: The End of Revolution
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During the Ne Win regimeâs two-and-a-half-decade rule, the tatmadaw greatly expanded its political role. Th e author has argued that this expan-sion created the basic mechanisms for the tatmadaw to maintain its poli-tical infl uence over the state. Despite its strength, the Ne Win regime collapsed in 1988 and the renewed military rule led by the State Law ...
Epilogue: Post-1988 Politics
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Th e tatmadaw (Myanmar Armed Forces), currently boasting a force of about 400,000 (Army: 375,000; Navy: 16,000; Air Force: 15,000), is an organization designed to defend national security and is the political backbone that has consistently supported the juntas since 1962. Since Independence, the tatmadawâs major duty has been counter-insurgency ...
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Th e Economic Transition in Myanmar after 1988: Market Economy versus State Control, edited by Koichi Fujita, Fumiharu Mieno and Ikuko Populism in Asia, edited by Kosuke Mizuno and Pasuk Phongpaichit, Traveling Nation-Makers: Transnational Flows and Movements in the Making of Modern Southeast Asia, edited by Caroline S. Hau and Kasian Tejapira, ...
Page Count: 384
Illustrations: 1 map, 50 tables, 37 figures, 5 images
Publication Year: 2013