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Connecting Empires and States

Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists

Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz, Andreas Reinecke & Dominik Bonatz

Publication Year: 2012

Drawing on a broad range of disciplines, the contributions gathered in this volume focus particular attention on early state formation, development of material cultures, and the transfer of iconographic concepts from late prehistoric to historic times. With chapters on the archaeology and history of the Indonesian archipelago, the multi-directional flows of Buddhist art in Southeast Asia, art and architecture of the Khmers, traditions and actions of various ethnic groups, specific regional phenomena are addressed in order to provide a resource for comparative perspectives. Connecting Empires and States contains 29 papers presented at the 13th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists (EurASEAA). Held in Berlin in 2010, the conference was jointly organized by the Institute of Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology at the Freie Universitat Berlin and the German Archaeological Institute. The peer-reviewed proceedings bring together archaeologists, art historians and philologists who share a common interest in Southeast Asia's early past.

Published by: NUS Press Pte Ltd

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-5


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pp. v-vi

List of Tables

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pp. vii-8

List of Figures

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pp. viii-xiv

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Facts and Trends in Southeast Asian Archaeology

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pp. xv-21

The biannual conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists — entitled “Crossing Borders in Southeast Asian Archaeology” — was held in Berlin from 27 September to 1 October 2010 (http://euraseaa.userpage.fu-berlin.de). It was jointly organized by the Institute for Near Eastern Archaeology of the Freie Universität Berlin and the German Archaeological Institute Southeast Asia consists of 11 countries, from Myanmar in the northwest to the Indonesian ...

Part One: New Insights into the Archaeology and History of the Indonesian Archipelago

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pp. 1-23

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Chapter 1: The Peopling of Nias, from the Perspective of Oral Literature and Molecular Genetic Data

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pp. 3-15

The origin of the native inhabitants of the island of Nias is unknown. Linguistics is not very helpful, as archaeology indicates settlement dates of at least 12,000 years BP, well before the expansion of Austronesian, the only language spoken there today. We investigated the genetic history of the paternal (Y-chromosomes) and the maternal (mitochondrial DNA) lineages from more than 900 people out of 11 representative clans throughout...

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Chapter 2: More than 3400 Years of Earthenware Traditions in Highland Jambi on Sumatra

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pp. 16-31

From 2003–8 the early material culture of Highland Jambi was examined through the initiative of the Freie Universität Berlin (FU Berlin), sponsored by the Swiss-Liechtenstein Foundation for Archaeological Research Abroad (SLSA). The earthenware started to be manufactured and used locally in multiple production centers in the territories of Kerinci and Serampas from at least 1400 BC. The earthenware from Bukit Arat is the oldest dated pottery found in Sumatra. The vessels were built by hand using the paddle-and-anvil-technique. The..

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Chapter 3: The Pre-Srivijaya Period on the Eastern Coast of Sumatra: Preliminary Research at the Air Sugihan Site

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pp. 32-42

Increasingly active inter-regional trade between China and India which used the maritime route during the early centuries AD resulted in the emergence of entrepôts within Southeast Asia. One of the larger and more renowned ports during this period was Oc Eo in Funan. The location of Funan was strategically placed between the Bassac River and the Gulf of Siam which allowed it to develop into an important commercial center. From at least the 3rd century AD, the ruler of Funan sent emissaries to India and China. Trade contacts...

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Chapter 4: New Finds of the Classical Period in West Sumatra

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pp. 43-52

In the periodization of Indonesia’s early history, the term “Classical period” has been adopted to distinguish the era of early state polities with strong, widespread Hindu-Buddhist affiliations in the late 7th century from the preceding prehistoric and subsequent early Islamic period in the 14th century (Miksic 1980: 43, fn. 1; 1996). In Sumatra, the dawn of the Classical period occurred slightly earlier than in Java, as the regional kingdoms...

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Chapter 5: Traces of Early Chinese and Southeast Asian Trade at Benteng Puteri Hijau, Namu Rambe, Northeast Sumatra

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pp. 53-66

...actually an extensive fortified settlement complex rather than simply a military fortification, is located at N 3° 29’ 383”, E 98° 40’ 281” and flanked by two rivers, the Deli or Lau Petani River to the east which drains to the Straits of Melaka, and a dried up former river course that is currently used for rice cultivation that lies to the...

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Chapter 6: The Kota Rentang Excavations

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pp. 67-81

A joint team consisting of the National Archaeology Research and Development Centre, Jakarta, National University of Singapore, Asia Research Institute and Boston University undertook a two week field survey and excavation at Kota Rentang, Kecamatan Hamperan Perak, Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatra province in April 2008. This initiative provided the opportunity to apply Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and magnetometer surveys...

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Chapter 7: Epigraphy, Political History and Collective Action in Ancient Java

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pp. 82-90

...The early history of Central Java has usually been depicted as dominated by the rivalry between the two dynasties: the Śailendras and the so-called Sañjaya family (De Casparis 1950; Coedès 1968). Since the Wanua Tengah III inscription of 908 was discovered in 1983, however, this reconstruction has been challenged....

Part Two: Multi-Directional Flows of Buddhist Art in Southeast Asia

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pp. 91-113

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Chapter 8: Sharing Sacred Space: A Comparative Study of Tabo and Borobudur

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pp. 93-101

In this paper I will compare the sacred space of these two monuments through an examination of their use of two prominent iconographic elements: the three-dimensional Vajradhatu mandala and narratives of the Pilgrimage of Sudhana and the Life of the Buddha. These fundamental iconographic elements are combined in each monument to produce two profound Buddhist royal structures that express Mahayanist and Tantric...

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Chapter 9: The Birth of Champa

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pp. 102-117

there were polities on the lower middle coast of today’s Vietnam before the words “Cham” or “Champa” appear in inscriptions, then we should be able to clarify the precise birth date of “Champa”. We must rely on Chinese texts...

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Chapter 10: Serpents and Buddhas

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pp. 118-126

A Buddha seated in meditation on the throne-like coils of a huge cobra, whose multiple heads rise splayed in a hood behind him, became the most reproduced and venerated icon of the ancient Khmers of Angkor. Yet the epigraphy of the period never mentions him by name or makes any allusion to the remarkable naga. This icon went on to occupy the place of supreme honor in the central sanctuary of the massive first state Buddhist temple...

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Chapter 11: New Perspectives on the Origin and Spread of Bhadrāsana Buddhas throughout Southeast Asia (7th–8th Centuries CE)

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pp. 127-143

This paper mainly focuses on Bhadrāsana Buddha images with the vitarkamudrā and attempts to connect its origin to a certain important Buddha icon from India.3 While investigating the different areas outside South Asia in which this iconography is found, the author explores the possibility of Central and East Asian models having played an important part in transmitting it to Southeast Asia during the influential Tang period...

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Chapter 12: Ta Mok Shwe-gu-gyi Temple: Local Art in Upper Myanmar 11th–17th Centuries AD

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pp. 144-160

...in the temple architecture but rarely mentioned in the economic and administrative documentation of the rice-fields of the 11 khayaing [Win Maung (Tampawaddy) 2000; Berliet 2008a]. The stupas and temples, however, marked out artistic, social and religious routes, and annual festival and pilgrimage circuits for local farmers [Burma Gazetteer 1925: 14; Cooley 1969 (1894): 42; Hendrickson 2007]. This tradition continue...

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Chapter 13: A Cladistic Evaluation of Ancient Thai Bronze Buddha Images: Six Tests for a Phylogenetic Signal in the Griswold Collection

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pp. 161-178

This chapter addresses the problem of whether or not concepts and methods borrowed from Darwinian evolution may produce reliable and useful results to advance our understanding of the history of Buddha images in Thailand. The key requirements of classical Darwinian evolution are that historical change in organisms occurs when variation and competition is present, and successful variants are inherited accumulated...

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Chapter 14: Woven Text, Woven Images: The Iconography of the Sazigyo

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pp. 179-188

This paper describes the woven motifs and pictorial images which appear on the Burmese manuscript binding tape (sazigyo), and comments on their relationship to each other and to the woven text. The subject is squarely...

Part Three: Art and Architecture of the Khmers: Centre and Periphery

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pp. 189-211

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Chapter 15: Angkor’s Roads: An Archaeo-Lexical Approach

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pp. 191-208

The text from the Preah Khan stele provides the only detailed account of the Khmer road system and has influenced academic interpretations of the history of Angkorian transportation. Written during the reign of King Jayavarman VII (CE 1181–1219), the famed ruler known for his massive building program, it clearly states that he erected fire shrine resthouse temples (often referred to as dharmaœala, see Finot 1925) along three...

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Chapter 16: Linking Downstream to Upstream in Landscape Archaeology — Two Southeast Asian Examples

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pp. 209-225

...features, such as rivers, lakes, coasts and even groundwater bodies in landscapes. If landscapes are inherently places which have interacted with people (Schama 1995: 7‒14), and water flows affect or are affected by most interactions between people and landscapes, it should follow that water is integral to almost every...

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Chapter 17: Discovery and Interpretation of a Buried Temple in the Angkor Wat Enclosure

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pp. 226-235

...and appear to be enclosed by a rectangular laterite wall, the remains of which are extant on the eastern side of the gate. There is evidence that they were constructed prior to the entrance gate of Angkor Wat, indicating the potential existence of three more towers that were demolished when G4W was built. The pattern is consistent...

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Chapter 18: The Face Towers of the Bayon Period in Angkor

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pp. 236-240

...asuras (Lobo and Jessup 2006: 189). The most popular explanations at the moment seem to be the Buddhist Brahmā on the one hand, and the all-seeing Avalokiteśvara on the other. The latter interpretation has also been attributed to the four pairs of eyes on top of the major Stūpas of the Kathmandu Valley. And here we..

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Chapter 19: K. 227 and the “Bharata Rāhu” Relief: Two Narratives from Banteay Chmar

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pp. 241-256

recounts a rebellion at the palace while the bas-relief appears to represent a mythological scene in the forest (Jacques and Lafond 2007: 239). However, the connection between the bas-relief and the inscription has become so firmly established that we cannot simply dismiss it at face value. I will review how George Coedès originally...

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Chapter 20: The Lintel of Vat Eng Khna, Cambodia: Image, Text and Precedent

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pp. 257-263

..Under the heading of “Indianization”, it is generally assumed that not only the religious texts but also the religious imagery in Southeast Asia are ultimately derived from Indian sources. This assumption, however, effectively denies the possibility of any major iconographic development in Southeast Asia itself. A close examination of the well-known figurative lintel from Vat Eng Khna (Kompong Thom province....

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Chapter 21: Development of devatā, apsara and dvārapāla from the 9th–13th Century AD Khmer Sites

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pp. 264-275

so-called devatā: apsara, as the female version of the gatekeeper is called, and dvārapāla, for the male version. They are usually placed at the sides of shrine entrances, basements, false doors and windows, standing facing forward. Aside from their popularity, the architectural significance of this type of relief is hard to deduce from their traditional designations, especially in the cases of apsara and devatā. These....

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Chapter 22: Interior Polychromy and Wall Paintings in Khmer Brick Temples of the 9th and 10th Century in Cambodia

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pp. 276-289

...in Rolous, Prasat Thom in Koh Ker and Prasat Neang Khmau in Takeo Province. Painting techniques were studied in detail and materials analyzed. Some of the decorative patterns were visualized by virtual reconstruction....

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Chapter 23: The Stone Quarries of Koh Ker (Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia): Comparison with Koh Ker Style Sculptures and Lintels

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pp. 289-305

which this production has been influenced by nature and the abundance of the local stone material. A recent survey and systematic sampling of the quarries scattered in the area of Koh Ker allowed, for the first time...

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Chapter 24: Émile Gsell (1838–79) and Early Photographs of Angkor

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pp. 306-316

Gsell must have founded his photographic atelier by October 1866, to become the first professional photographer in Saigon. At the instigations of Louis-Marie Joseph Delaporte (1842...

Part Four: Traditions and Actions

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pp. 317-339

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Chapter 25: The Taprobanian Revolution and the Paradigm Shift Away from the Ptolemaic Model of Asia — Archaeology and History of Ancient Seafaring in the Indian Ocean

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pp. 319-329

...journeys of Vasco da Gama led to a subsequent replacement of the Ptolemaic tradition in cartography during the 16th century. The geographer Brian Harley stated that “Maps are graphic representations that facilitate a spatial understanding...

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Chapter 26: Cultural and Ethnic Diversity in the Burma Area, First Millennium CE: A New Look at the Early Urban Settlements

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pp. 330-348

and practices of Gordon Hannington Luce, keep in mind that this article is, to a large degree, informed by my reading of his publications, which made the most significant contributions to our knowledge of the historiography, culture and language of the proto / early Burma area. The...

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Chapter 27: A Look at Settlement Patterns of 5th–16th-Century Sites in Myanmar

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pp. 349-361

Since the 1998 publication by Aung Myint on aerial photos of early Burmese “cities”, a number of archaeologists and historians have examined early “urban” sites in Burma. Their publications cover a range of subjects from the theoretical comparison between types of “cities” (Miksic 2001), architectural and archaeological...

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Chapter 28: Tai Potters across Borders: Tracking Ceramic Technology in Southern Yunnan and Northern Thailand

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pp. 362-374

production technology. Drawing on fieldwork in Yunnan in 2009 and 2010 and our earlier surveys of pottery production in adjacent areas of Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, it describes continuity across borders of ceramic production technology, at the same time as it identifies disparities in ceramic repertories and usages...

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Chapter 29: Clay Flutes and the Question of Ceramic Traditions in the Central Highlands of Papua New Guinea

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pp. 375-383

of a traditional use of unfired clay for modelling vessel flutes in parts of the interior highlands was, therefore, regarded as the product of the cultural influence of coastal tribes, from whom clay pots had been obtained as trade goods. This paper gives an account of various other traditional uses of unfired clay by many highland...

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About the Authors

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pp. 384-387

Agustjanto I. is an archaeologist at the National Research and Development Centre of Archaeology, Jakarta, Indonesia. His research focuses on the protohistoric period in Southeast Asia. Joachm K. Bautze is an art historian with extensive experience in the field of South Asian and Southeast Asian art. His current main research focuses on the interaction between Western reproduction technology Roger M. Blench is Chief Research Officer, Kay Williamson Educational Foundation, in Cambridge, ...


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pp. 388-392

E-ISBN-13: 9789971696788
Print-ISBN-13: 9789971696436

Page Count: 416
Illustrations: 20 tables, 219 images
Publication Year: 2012

Edition: New