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Crossing Borders

Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists

Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz, Andreas Reinecke & Dominik Bonatz

Publication Year: 2012

Based on recent field research and excavation finds, the contributions in this volume focus on cultural practices and materials which reflect processes of integration, specification and diversification in the prehistory and early history of Southeast Asia. With chapters on the variability and distribution of lithic assemblages, funerary practices, the spread of Neolithic cultures and field agriculture, and the development of Metal Age remains, different approaches are presented to interpret these phenomena in their specific environmental context. Crossing Borders contains 25 papers presented at the 13th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists (EurASEAA). Held in Berlin in 2010, the conference was jointly organized by the Institute of Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology at the Freie Universitat Berlin and the German Archaeological Institute. The peer-reviewed proceedings bring together archaeologists, art historians and philologists who share a common interest in Southeast Asia's early past.

Published by: NUS Press Pte Ltd

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-5


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pp. v-7

List of Tables

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pp. vii-viii

List of Figures

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pp. ix-xiii

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Facts and Trends in Southeast Asian Archaeology

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pp. xiv-xix

The biannual conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists — entitled “Crossing Borders in Southeast Asian Archaeology” — was held in Berlin from 27 September to 1 October 2010 (http://euraseaa.userpage.fu-berlin.de). It was jointly organized by the Institute for Near Eastern Archaeology of the Freie Universität Berlin and the German Archaeological Institute Southeast Asia consists of 11 countries, from Myanmar in the northwest to the Indonesian ...

Part One: Variability and Spread of Lithic Assemblages

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pp. 1-23

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Chapter 1 The Hoabinhian Definition — In the Past and Today: A Short Historical Review of Defining the Hoabinhian

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pp. 3-12

Eighty years after the “First Congress of Prehistorians of the Far East” held in Hanoi 1932 and 18 years after the “Hoabinhian 60 years after Madeleine Colani: Anniversary Conference” in Hanoi in December 1993 / January 1994, the term “Hoabinhian” is still in use and has become well established. This paper gives a general introduction to its definition, milestones of the history of research, geography and chronology of the Hoabinhian. This paper does not claim to be all-inclusive. Its aim is to reflect ...

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Chapter 2 Hoabinhian in the Siwaliks of North-Western India?

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pp. 13-25

The Hoabinhian represents the late Pleistocene and early Holocene technical practices in mainland Southeast Asia and its bordering regions. Despite the land connections that existed during the Last Glacial Maximum this technical tradition did not spread eastwards in island Southeast Asia (except in Sumatra) but westwards. For instance, in Nepal, some lithic assemblages have been interpreted as proceeding from the same tradition. Further west, the Siwalik Hills of north-western India yield assemblages rich ...

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Chapter 3 How Can Stone Tools Help to Understand the Importance of Plants in the Subsistence Strategies of Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers in the Philippines and Southeast Asia?

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pp. 26-34

A number of observations suggest that plants have played a major role in the economy of Southeast Asian hunters-gatherers during the Pleistocene. The use of plants and the production of complex and specialized implements made of wood or bamboo has actually been suggested by some archaeologists as a means to explain the apparently simple lithic technology and paucity of formal stone tools in Southeast The absence of vegetal artifacts in the archaeological record and the present lack of a detailed and ...

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Chapter 4 Bone and Shell Artifacts from Bukit Sarang, Bintulu and Gua Kain Hitam B, Niah, Sarawak

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pp. 35-50

BONE AND SHELL ARTIFACTS FROM BUKIT SARANG, BINTULU AND GUA KAIN HITAM B, NIAH, SARAWAKThis paper discusses bone and shell tools and ornaments recovered during archaeological excavations at Bukit Sarang, Bintulu, in 2003, and Gua (cave) Kain Hitam B, Niah, Miri, Sarawak in 2007, by the Centre for Global Archaeological Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, and Sarawak Museum Department, Kuching, Malaysia. The excavations at Bukit Sarang and Gua Kain Hitam B, have uncovered, ...

Part Two: Anthropological Remains and Funerary Practices

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pp. 51-73

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Chapter 5 The Paleolithic Site of Sao Din, Northern Thailand

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pp. 53-59

..Human dispersal over time and space is still debated and recent discoveries and studies in India or China demonstrate a much older presence of human during the Early Pleistocene in Asia according to stone tools evidence. Information concerning the expansion of human groups into continental Southeast Asia is generally lacking — although fossil evidence demonstrating an early human presence in insular Southeast Asia does exist, i.e. Indonesia. A recent survey in Northern Thailand have produced a numerous series of stone tools which present anเ...

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Chapter 6 New Excavation at Moh Khiew Site, Southern Thailand

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pp. 60-70

PRASIT AUETRAKULVIT, HUBERT FORESTIER, CHAWALIT KHAOKHIEW AND VALÉRY ZEITOUNPrasit Auetrakulvit, Hubert Forestier, Chawalit Khaokhiew and Valéry Zeitounแหล่งโบราณคดีเพิงผาหมอเขียวคือหนึ่งในแหล่งโบราณคดีที่สำคัญสมัยก่อนประวัติศาสตร์ในภูมิภาคเอเชียตะวันออกเฉียงใต้ และเป็นแหล่งโบราณคดีที่ประกอบได้ด้วยชั้นวัฒนธรรมสมัยก่อนประวัติศาตร์ต่อเนื่อง และยาวนาน โดยการขุดค้นของ สุรินทร์ ภู่ขจร พบโครงกระดูกหลายโครงในหลุมขุดค้นเดียวกัน และฝังอยู่ในบริเวณใกล้ ๆ กันรวมทั้งการค้นพบเครื่องมือหินโฮบินเนี...

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Chapter 7 Transitions from Late Prehistoric to Dvaravati Period Funerary Practices: New Evidence fromDong Mae Nang Muang, Central Thailand

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pp. 71-83

TRANSITIONS FROM LATE PREHISTORIC TO DVARAVATI PERIOD FUNERARY PRACTICESบทความนี้มุ่งเน้นการศึกษาประเพณีการฝังศพที่ปรากฏในภาคกลางและภาคตะวันออกเฉียงของประเทศไทยโดยเ ฉพาะอย่างยิ่งในช่วงพุทธศตวรรษที่ 11 – 18 หรือตั้งแต่สมัยยุคเหล็กตอนปลายจนถึงสมัยทวารวดี ซึ่งบทความชิ้นนี้ได้มุ่งเน้นที่จะนำเสนอหลักฐานใหม่ที่ได้จากการดำเนินงาน ทางโบราณคดีในระหว่างเดือนเมษายน – กันยายน 2552 ที่แหล่งโบราณคดีดงแม่นางเมือง อ.บรรพตพิสัย จ.นครสวรรค์ ซึ่งจากการดำเนินงานทางโบราณคดีในครั้งนั้นได้ค้นพบหลักฐานประเภทหลุมฝังศพ ...

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Chapter 8 The Management of the Sepulchral Place and the Distribution of the Deceased: Examples of Some Reduced Burials fromIron Age Sites in the Samon River Valley, Upper Burma

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pp. 84-95

The question of opening graves and of reshaping fleshless bones is rarely tackled in Southeast Asia’s prehistoric archaeology. Was this kind of funeral practice really uncommon? With regard to the Iron Age burial sites of the Samon River Valley, the answer is no. Bundled burials seem to be quite common.Reduced burials are different from secondary burials because the reshaping of bones is made in the same location as the original burials, and is not planned at the moment of the first interment. The skeletons ...

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Chapter 9 The Bronze-Iron Human Teeth from Blandongan Temple, West Java, Indonesia

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pp. 96-106

This paper discusses human permanent molars from the Bronze to Iron Age found at Blandongan Temple in West Java, retrieved in 2003, 2008, and 2010, and includes metrical comparisons made with several molars from Mesolithic and Neolithic samples from Java. Our results show that the Blandongan molars are relatively smaller than comparative material. We suggest that this fact demonstrates a diachronic molar size change from prehistoric to historical time in Java, due to a mutual links between cultural, ...

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Part Three: The Spread of Neolithic Cultures and Field Agriculture

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pp. 107-129

Crossing Borders hi res combined107 107 8/23/2012 7:45:37 PMCrossing Borders hi res combined108 108 8/23/2012 7:45:37 PM...

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Chapter 10: Is the Neolithic Spread in Island Southeast Asia Really as Confusing as the Archaeologists(and Some Linguists) Make it Seem?

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pp. 109-121

Over the last decade in particular, there have been challenges to the orthodox archaeological and linguistic model of Neolithic expansion out of Taiwan, through the Philippines and Eastern Indonesia / Wallacea and out into the Pacific. There have been suggestions that Taiwan was not the origin but merely a backwater with the Neolithic developing independently within the Philippines-Indonesia and perhaps spreading back to Taiwan, or that its origin point was southern China or Vietnam direct to the Philippines. ...

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Chapter 11: Almost Everything You Believed about the Austronesians Isn’t True

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pp. 122-142

One of the most persuasive narratives in recent prehistory has been that of the Austronesian expansion, the notion that a migration out of Taiwan some 4000 years ago was responsible for the spread of Austronesian languages from the Philippines to Remote Oceania. Although strongly supported by archaeologists such as Peter Bellwood, many others find the pattern of material culture too diverse to support a demic expansion model. Nonetheless, archaeology has signally failed to establish an alternative ...

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Chapter 12: Defining the Neolithic of Southern Vietnam: The Ceramics of An Sơn

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pp. 143-163

The increase in archaeological research in recent years in southern Vietnam permits the inclusion of relevant sites from that region into the wider regional understanding of important cultural phenomena in mainland Southeast Asia. This paper considers the ceramic technology in relation to the appearance of rice cultivation, animal husbandry, ground and polished stone tools and related cultural signatures that are commonly associated with the “Neolithic” period. Comprehensive analyses have been conducted ...

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Chapter 13: A New Chronological Framework for Ban Chiang, Northeast Thailand

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pp. 164-170

With each new generation of developments in radiocarbon dating, old interpretations must be re-evaluated. Major advances have included AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) dating, the application of Bayesian statistics and the pre-treatment of bone through ultrafiltration. Currently in Southeast Asia, we have entered a new and dynamic period of enquiry made possible through these seminal changes, nowhere better illustrated, than by comparing the results of successive dating programs at the site of Ban ...

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Chapter 14: The Case of the Mon Pha Tai “Sacred Place”, Chiang Rai Province: Archaeological Implements and Geosymbolism

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pp. 171-180

The site of Mon Pha Tai is located at Baan Nong Khuang village in the Ing River basin (Chiang Rai province) which is the main river which runs from the south to the north and flows into the Mekong River at Chiang Khong. In this region mainly consisting of flat plains, we undertook an archaeological survey on the several little inselbergs which provided potsherds from the historical Lanna period (14th‒17th centuries CE) found on the soil surface and occurring preferentially close to big natural isolated blocks. ...

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Chapter 15: Revisiting the Rock Art at Gua Tambun, Perak, Malaysia

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pp. 181-198

Rock art is an archaeological phenomenon that occurs fairly frequently throughout Southeast Asia but is still not well understood. Such is the case for the rock art in Gua Tambun, a rock shelter containing a large collection of rock paintings in Perak, Malaysia. Despite its “discovery” in 1959, few detailed studies have been conducted due to the technical difficulties of recording and interpreting rock art, which have resulted in tenuous and disputable interpretations of the Tambun rock art. This paper presents the main ...

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Chapter 16: The Megalithic Landscape of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia: Combining Archaeological and Palynological Investigations

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pp. 199-218

Central Sulawesi is characterized as both a hot spot of biodiversity as well as a megalithic landscape with a clustered distribution of megalithic sites. One of the main goals of this preliminary evaluation is to untangle the development of societies with monumental constructions in relation to environmental change and diversity. Initial results presented in this paper highlight the research potential of a combined investigation of ecological data and archaeological surveys. The conclusions are based both on pollen data ...

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Part Four: Interpreting the Distribution of the Metal Age Remains

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pp. 219-241

Crossing Borders hi res combined219 219 8/23/2012 7:46:22 PMCrossing Borders hi res combined220 220 8/23/2012 7:46:22 PM...

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Chapter 17: Léonard Aurousseau’s Hypothesis Revisited:The Intersection between History and Archaeology

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pp. 221-229

This paper uses cloth production tools and extant remains to reconstruct the movement of prehistoric groups with textile technology into the Red River valley of Vietnam during the protohistoric period. The principal argument is that there was more than one wave of migration into Vietnam. This research shows that spinning technology developed independently in the Yangzi valley of southern China during the Neolithic period and gradually spread during the Bronze Age from the southeast region into the Red ...

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Chapter 18: New Archaeological Discoveries of the Bronze and the Early Iron Age in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateauand Some Related Problems

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pp. 230-238

The results of some new excavations at Early Bronze and Iron Age sites in the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau are summarized in this paper. The discoveries indicate that the Bronze Age in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau began at least from the second half of the 2nd millennium BC. Hitherto, the continuity from the Bronze Age culture to the cultures of Yelang or Dian has not yet been proven. However, both Iron Age cultures that were distributed along the Southwestern Silk Road during the second half of the 1st ...

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Chapter 19: The Prehistoric Occupation and Cultural Characteristics of the Mekong Delta during the Pre-Funan Periods

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pp. 239-256

Khi nào đồng bằng sông Cửu Long thật sự là một “khu vực di dân”? Phần lớn ý kiến của các nhà khảo cổ học tập trung rằng, đây là một vùng dân cư đông đúc khoảng từ 500 năm tr. CN. Từ đỉnh điểm của mực nước biển ở Holocene giữa, vùng đồng bằng sông Cửu Long đã mở rộng kích thước đến diện tích như hiện nay do mực nước biển lùi và sự lắng đọng trầm tích. Trong bài báo này, tác giả đề cập đến những phát hiện mới và sự phân bố các địa điểm khảo cổ trong vùng đồng bằng sông Cửu Long cũng như ý ...

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Chapter 20: The Human Remains of Gò Ô Chùa: Preliminary Results

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pp. 257-267

Trong các thời kỳ tiền sử ở đồng bằng sông Cửu Long từng tồn tại điều kiện môi trường không thuận lợi cho sự di dân. Những bằng chứng khảo cổ và nhân chủng của thời kỳ này khá hiếm, vì thế lối sống cũng như phương thức tổ chức xã hội và chính trị của khu vực này ít được biết đến. Các mộ táng ở địa điểm Gò Ô Chùa trong tỉnh Long An giới thiệu cho số lượng xương cốt lớn nhất ở vùng đồng bằng sông Cửu Long tại Việt Nam và có niên đại vào thời đại đồ sắt sớm từ thế kỷ 4-1 trước CN. Đến nay, 52 bộ ...

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Chapter 21: Prohear — An Iron Age Burial Site in Southeastern Cambodia: Preliminary Report after Three Excavations

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pp. 268-284

In spring 2007, an Iron Age burial site with many bronze drums and gold or silver offerings was discovered at the village of Prohear in the Prey Veng province of southeastern Cambodia, but was almost completely looted by the villagers before the end of that year. In spring 2008, 2009 and 2011, rescue excavations were conducted under the 4m-wide main road through the village, which had been spared from looting. 168m2 have been uncovered on a length of 58m of the road. In total, 69 inhumations and ...

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Chapter 22: Restoration and Conservation of Archaeological Objects:From Angkor to Prohear

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pp. 285-295

The first laboratories for sculptures and metals in Cambodia were established in the 1960s by French specialists in Siem Reap, and later at the National Museum of Cambodia in Phnom Penh. In the first part of this paper, a short overview is given about the restoration and conservation work in archaeology and art in Cambodia. In the second part, restoration of newly discovered metal artifacts from Prohear in Prey Veng province at the Metal Restoration Laboratory of the Memot Centre for Archaeology in Phnom ...

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Chapter 23: Garnet Beads in Southeast Asia: Evidence for Local Production?

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pp. 296-306

This paper focus on the analysis of two distinct types of garnet beads found at Iron Age sites in Cambodia. One type of garnet bead artifact was found at the site Angkor Borei in the Mekong Delta region of Cambodia. A second distinct type of garnet bead was found at sites in southeastern Cambodia, including Prohear, Village 10.8 and Bit Meas. Morphological study of the beads and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis of the drill hole impressions show that the two types of beads represent two ...

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Chapter 24: Early Glass Trade in South and Southeast Asia:New Insights from Two Coastal Sites, Phu Khao Thong in Thailand and Arikamedu in South India

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pp. 307-328

Laure Dussubieux, James W. Lankton, Bérénice Bellina-Pryce and Boonyarit ChaisuwanThis is a study of 64 glass artifacts from the site of Phu Khao Thong, Thailand (possibly 2nd century BC–4th century AD), on the west coast of the upper Thai-Malay Peninsula, using the technique of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to measure major, minor and trace elements within the glass. Comparison of these results with those from contemporaneous sites, and ...

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Chapter 25: The Tuyom Clay Source and Ceramics from the Central Visayas, Philippines: Comparative Studies Using ICPMS Elemental Analysis

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pp. 329-341

THE TUYOM CLAY SOURCE AND CERAMICS FROM THE CENTRAL VISAYAS, PHILIPPINESJohn A. Peterson, Andrea Yankowski, Grazyna Badowski and Eric De CarloThis project compares the elemental signature of clays and earthenware pottery from the Central Visayas using ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) and multivariate statistical analysis. Data from specimens from Cebu and Bohol are included with that from a previous study comparing the Tuyom ...

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About the Authors

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pp. 342-346

Grazyna Badowsk is assistant professor at the Division of Mathematical Sciences, University of Guam. Her research interests are stochastic models and statistics. Email: gbadowski@uguam.uog.edu Hermann Behlng is full professor at the Department of Palynology and Climate Dynamics, Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen, Germany. He focuses on Holocene vegetation dynamics in the tropics inferred from pollen analytical investigations of sediment and peat ...


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pp. 347-350

E-ISBN-13: 9789971696771
Print-ISBN-13: 9789971696429

Page Count: 372
Illustrations: 51 tables, 176 images
Publication Year: 2012

Edition: New