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The Cham of Vietnam

History, Society and Art

Edited by Tran Ky Phuong and Bruce Lockhart

Publication Year: 2011

The Cham people once inhabited and ruled over a large stretch of what is now the central Vietnamese coast. Their Indianized civilisation flourished for centuries, and they competed with the Vietnamese and Khmers for influence in mainland Southeast Asia. This book brings together essays on the Cham by specialists in history, archaeology, anthropology, art history and linguistics. It presents a revisionist overview of Cham history and a detailed explanation of how the Cham have been studied by different generations of scholars, as well as chapters on specific aspects of the Cham past. Several authors focus on archaeological work in central Vietnam that positions recent discoveries within the broader framework of Cham history. The authors synthesize work by previous scholars in order to illustrate what "Champa" has represented over the centuries. The book's fresh perspectives on the Cham provide penetrating insights into the history of Vietnam and on the broader dynamic of Southeast Asian history.

Published by: NUS Press Pte Ltd

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. vii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-xiv

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pp. xv

Like the towers, temples, and ruined walls scattered across central Vietnam, references to Champa are strewn randomly through Vietnamese texts. A tribute mission here, a military campaign there, a toponym or folk memory of an ancient Cham site in a gazetteer — such are the “raw data” available to the historian, along with the inscriptions and chronicles of...

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Colonial and Post-ColonialConstructions of “Champa”

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pp. 1-53

Like the kingdom and civilization of Angkor, Champa was virtually unknown to the Western world until the advent of colonial rule in Indochina, at which point it drew the attention of French scholars. Historians, art historians, epigraphers, and archaeologists constructed — or...

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Excavations at Gò Cấm, Quảng Nam,2000–3: Linyi and the Emergence of the Cham Kingdoms

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pp. 54-80

The term “Champa” is commonly used for a series of small coastal polities that developed along the coast of central Vietnam during the first millennium CE in many of the river valleys flowing eastwards from the central Trường Sơn mountain ranges to the South China Sea...

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Trà Kiệu during the Second andThird Centuries CE: The Formationof Linyi from an ArchaeologicalPerspective

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pp. 81-101

As the pace of archaeological work in Vietnam has become more active over the past few years, fieldwork on Champa has taken place at various sites in the Central region. The annual review of new discoveries in Vietnamese archaeology for 2002, for instance, contains about 20 papers...

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River Settlement and Coastal Trade: Towards a Specific Model of Early State Development in Champa

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pp. 102-119

This paper is based on a theoretical model of the coastal state in Southeast Asia devised by Bennet Bronson and published in 1977.1 Before examining the model in detail, however, we need to ask: Why use a model at all? Theoretical models are often used in American anthropology and archaeology...

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“Mandala Champa” Seen from Chinese Sources

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pp. 120-137

Studies on Chinese sources related to Champa appeared only sporadically in the late twentieth century. Even with the dramatic revival of Champa studies since the 1980s — first in France, then in Vietnam and other...

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The “Account of Champa” in the Song Huiyao Jigao

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pp. 138-167

The use of Chinese texts in (re)constructing the history of Champa is certainly not a new undertaking. Many of the histories of the successive Cham polities of Linyi, Huanwang and Zhancheng have been written with the assistance of Chinese sources. For the period examined in this...

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The Last Great King of Classical Southeast Asia: “Chế Bồng Nga”and Fourteenth-century Champa

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pp. 168-203

This is an exploration into the history of Champa. I have previously studied the Vietnamese side of events in the fourteenth century; now I wish to understand the side of Champa. What was this land called “Nagara Champa” at that time? (I shall use “Nagara Champa” and “Champa”...

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The Significance of Ceramic Evidence for Assessing Contacts between Vijaya and Other Southeast Asian Polities in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries CE

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pp. 204-237

Chinese ceramics became popular trade commodities in the South China Sea basin from the tenth century CE, while high-fired ceramics from mainland Southeast Asia cornered a significant share of the market approximately four centuries later. This influx of Vietnamese,1 Thai and Burmese...

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Vietnam–Champa Relations during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

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pp. 238-262

This essay investigates the fate of Champa after 1471 by looking into the relationship between Champa and the Vietnamese during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Historical relations between Vietnam and the...

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Việt–Cham Cultural Contacts

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pp. 263-276

Vietnam scholars have tended to focus heavily on the ethnic Việt people’s military and political “march to the South” (Nam tiến) or their southward agricultural expansion along the coastal area of the South China Sea. Their objective is to compare the process with China’s southward political and...

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The Integral Relationship between Hindu Temple Sculpture and Architecture: A New Approach to the Arts of Champa

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pp. 277-299

During the twentieth century, research on the history of Champa art was mainly conducted by French archaeologists and art historians such as Henri Parmentier, Jean-Yves Claeys, Philippe Stern and Jean Boisselier. The methodology used by these scholars focused specifically on either...

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Pan-Asian Buddhism and the Bodhisattva Cult in Champa

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pp. 300-322

Southeast Asia in the late first millennium was enamoured with the Mahayanist concept of the Buddhist princely saviour, the Bodhisattva whose intervention could assist the devotee in attaining merit to achieve moksa — liberation from the cycle of rebirth — in one’s lifetime. The....

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A Study of the Almanac of the Cham in South-Central Vietnam

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pp. 323-336

Anthropological research has in many cases abandoned the attempt to represent an ethnic group or its culture as essentialized or homogeneous. Numerous works on ethnic groups in Vietnam, however, still tend to adopt such an approach. The Cham in south-central Vietnam, which I examine...

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Kut (Cemeteries) of the Cham in Ninh Thuận Province

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pp. 337-347

The Cham ethnic group is classified as belonging to the Indonesian racial type,1 Their language belongs to the Austronesian family, grouped together with Rhad

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The Westward Expansion of Chamic Influence in Indochina: A View from Historical Linguistics

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pp. 348-362

This paper explores the historical impact of the Chamic languages (Cham, Jarai, Rhad

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Champa Revised

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pp. 363-420

As the title of this paper implies, I consider that the history of Champa, which, as a whole, has hardly been given critical study since Georges Maspero’s 1928 book, is in need of revision.1 The important points which require revision are the following...


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pp. 421-425


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pp. 426-455


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pp. 456-480

E-ISBN-13: 9789971695842
Print-ISBN-13: 9789971694593

Page Count: 480
Illustrations: 95 images
Publication Year: 2011

Edition: New

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Subject Headings

  • Champā (Kingdom) -- History -- Congresses.
  • Champā (Kingdom) -- Civilization -- Congresses.
  • Champā (Kingdom) -- Antiquities -- Congresses.
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