The Virgin Mary and Catholic Identities in Chinese History
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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This work began as a doctoral thesis, as one way of furthering relationships with Chinese Catholic communities. In the process, it became a project that brought me into contact with an international group of scholars studying multiple aspects of Chinese history and culture. ...
Introduction: Chinese Catholic identities in the modern period
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T_he Catholic Church in China is surprisingly large, comprising millions of believers. T_he f_igure of more than twelve million is not a large number in Chinese terms, given the immensity of China’s population.1 Nonetheless, it represents a substantial number of adherents. Some of these Catholic com-munities can trace their history some 400 years back to the entry of European ...
Part 1: Images of Mary in China before 1842
1. Chinese Christian art during the pre-modern period
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T_he oldest and most signif_icant of the Christian relics discovered in China are a number of decorated stone monuments—including a memorial stele and several tombstones. An image of the Madonna and child is among these works, featured on a headstone bearing the date 1342.1 T_his memorial was found in Yangzhou in the early 1950s. T_hese stone monuments are almost all examples ...
Part 2: The Chinese Catholic Church since 1842
2. After the treaties
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T_he Treaty of Nanjing marked the cessation of the First Opium War, fought between Great Britain and China. T_he fact that this formal agreement, signed on 29 August 1842, was “imposed by the victor upon the vanquished at gunpoint, without the careful deliberation usually accompanying international agree-ments in Europe and America”, undoubtedly contributed to the outbreak of the ...
3. Our Lady of Donglu
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Marian images in the French style had a signif_icant and arguably negative impact on the creation of a Chinese Catholic identity. T_he periods of anti-foreign hostility that occurred with increasing regularity throughout the latter part of the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century reinforced this identity. As stated above, the Christian and Catholic communities were ready ...
4. The rise and fall of the French protectorate
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T_he inf_luence of the French and European missionaries on the Catholic Church in China was particularly pronounced during the mid- to the late nineteenth century, as seen in Chapter 2. If the period prior to the Opium Wars was the time of the Iberian churches, the age of the patronato and the padroado, then the Opium War treaties began the age of the French church. For this reason, this ...
Part 3: Images of Mary in the early twentieth century
5. The Furen art department
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One of the traditional (and logical) ways to help a local church develop its independence is to train and educate the leadership to a particular standard. T_he leaders would then be aware of their church’s own history, as well as of its place in the broader history of the Catholic Church. By the early twentieth century, some of the most inf_luential foreign missionaries united with Chinese ...
6. The Chinese dimension to the Furen Christian art
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T_he teachers, students and graduates of the Furen art department now produced lively and evocative examples of Christian images in local style. In this way, they resumed the work of artistic adaptation that had occurred in the time of the Zhangzhou sculptors and in that of João da Rocha and Giulio Aleni, discussed in Chapter 1. Whereas in the age of the French protectorate ...
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T_his book has explored the question: How are Chinese Catholic identities expressed through images? In answering this question, I have paid specif_ic attention to the way Marian devotions are portrayed artistically, showing that there has been a rich tradition of sculpting, engraving and painting in an inter-pretive and accommodative style, ever since the early fourteenth century. Even ...
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Image 1 Fr. Francis Rouleau, SJ, standing in front of a rubbing of Katerina Ilioni’s tombstone (photograph from California Province Jesuit Archives, used with permission)Image 2 The Annunciation, from Joao da Rocha’s Songnian guicheng [How to pray the rosary] (from the Getty Research Institute, used with permission)Image 3 The Annunciation, from Jeronimo Nadal’s Adnotationes et meditationes ...
Page Count: 312
Illustrations: 12 colour & 13 b/w illus.
Publication Year: 2013