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Mongolia and the United States

A Diplomatic History

Jonathan S. Addleton

Publication Year: 2013

Mongolia and the United States provides a pioneering firsthand look at the remarkable growth in ties between two countries separated by vast distances that yet share a growing list of interests and values. While maintaining positive ties with its two powerful neighbors, China and Russia, Mongolia has sought “third neighbors” to help provide balance. For its part, the United States responded by supporting Mongolia as an emerging democracy while strengthening development and commercial relations. People-to-people ties have also expanded, as has a security partnership that supports Mongolia’s emergence as a provider of military peacekeepers in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Darfur, and elsewhere. A magnet for foreign investment, Mongolia is one of the world’s fastest-growing economies. Against this backdrop, partnerships developed between the United States and Mongolia since 1987 reflect the variety of ways in which diplomatic engagement can help set the stage for more dramatic and far-reaching changes. The author, Jonathan S. Addleton, participated in a number of these developments, first as USAID country director (2001–04) and later as US ambassador (2009–12). The narrative provides personal insights and is based on material that would otherwise be unavailable.

Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU

Cover

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p. C-C

Title Page, About the Series, Other Works in the Series, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

Acronyms

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pp. vii-viii

Glossary of Mongolian Terms

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pp. ix-x

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Introduction

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pp. xi-xvi

On January 27, 1987, senior diplomats from the United States and Mongolia met in a modest ceremony below a portrait of Thomas Jefferson in the Treaty Room of the Department o f State in Washington, D.C. Their purpose was to sign the legal documentation needed to finally establish formal diplomatic relations between the two countries. This in turn led to the appointment of the first...

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Chapter 1: Early Encounters

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pp. 1-16

The accounts vary in content and the dates are not entirely clear, but in either 1899 or 1900 two young men briefly met at the central monastery in Urga, as Ulaanbaatar was then known. One was a prominent lama known as the eighth Jebtsundamba, who 11 years later would lead the Mongolian quest for freedom from the Qing Empire, emerging as the “Holy King” or “Bogd Khan” (1869–...

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Chapter 2: Establishing Diplomatic Relations

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pp. 17-36

Th e establishment of formal diplomatic ties between Mongolia and the United States on January 27, 1987, introduced a new chapter in the US-Mongolian encounter, one that was given further impetus with Mongolia’s “decision for democracy” during the tumultuous and historic events of 1990 and aft erwards. Over the past quarter century, these diplomatic ties have also become the foundation...

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Chapter 3: Supporting Democracy

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pp. 37-60

Th e establishment of diplomatic ties between the United States and Mongolia in January 1987 occurred on the eve of great international change, especially in the Soviet Union when Gorbachev’s introduction of glasnost and perestroika gained traction and ushered in an era of transformation within the various former Soviet republics and beyond....

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Chapter 4: Partnering on Development

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pp. 61-86

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) launched its first program in Mongolia in November 1991, almost five years after the official opening of bilateral relations between the two countries. More than two decades later, US assistance programs continue to promote useful partnerships between the United States and Mongolia, as rapid expansion in the country’s mining ...

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Chapter 5: Building Commercial Ties

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pp. 87-100

Early black and white photographs from the beginning of the 1900s give some indication of a United States commercial presence in Mongolia going back more than a century. Two of the more well-known American trading houses at the time were “Andersen and Meyer” and the “Mongolian Trading Company,” the latter based in the Inner Mongolian town of Kalgan but with branch offices in ...

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Chapter 6: Promoting Security

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pp. 101-116

While diplomatic ties between Mongolia and the United States formally commenced in January 1987, it would be nearly a decade before those relationships included a strong security dimension. The foundational document for such an engagement was signed in Ulaanbaatar on June 26, 1996. It established a framework for what has become an important and mutually beneficial partnership...

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Chapter 7: Sustaining People-to-People Relationships

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pp. 117-140

People-to-people relationships are the lifeblood of any bilateral partnership between countries, the foundation on which all other long-term engagements are built. Long before formal diplomatic relations were established, Americans and Mongolians were meeting together, sometimes in unlikely places. Photographs taken during the Roy Chapman Andrews expeditions to the Gobi during the ...

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Chapter 8: Looking Ahead

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pp. 141-150

In mid-June 2011, following in the footsteps of his immediate predecessors Ochirbat (1993–97), Bagabandai (1997–2005), and Enkhbayar (2005–08), all of whom had met with serving American presidents, President Elbegdorj traveled to Washington to meet with President Obama at the White House....

Annexes

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pp. 151-152

Key Agreements between the UnitedStates and Mongolia, 1987–2012

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pp. 153-154

US Ambassadors and Heads of Agenciesin Mongolia, 1987–2012

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pp. 155-156

U.S.-Mongolia Joint StatementIssued at the White HouseJune 16, 2011

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pp. 157-160

U.S. Senate Resolution on MongoliaSponsored by Senators Kerry, McCain,Murkowski, and WebbJune 17, 2011

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pp. 161-164

Major Sources and Further Reading

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pp. 165-170

Acknowledgments

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pp. 171-174

Index

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pp. 175-186

About the Author

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pp. 187-188


E-ISBN-13: 9789888180868
Print-ISBN-13: 9789888139941

Page Count: 204
Illustrations: nil
Publication Year: 2013

Edition: 1