Return Migration and Identity
A Global Phenomenon, A Hong Kong Case
Publication Year: 2010
Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU
Download PDF (128.5 KB)
Title Page, Copyright Page
Download PDF (80.3 KB)
Download PDF (30.9 KB)
Download PDF (42.5 KB)
Preface and acknowledgments
Download PDF (36.1 KB)
The global trend for immigrants to return home has a special relevance to the people of Hong Kong. While the research that forms the core of this book was undertaken within the academic and theoretical framework of cross-cultural psychology, the book has been written to be accessible both to scholars of cultural transitions and to the immigrants and their ...
About the Author
Download PDF (31.8 KB)
Dr. Nan M. Sussman was born and raised in the United States but became enamored with international travel as a teenager. For Nan, culture and its psychological impact became a lifetime personal and professional interest. She holds a bachelor’s degree in anthropology, sociology, and communications from the University of Pittsburgh (1973), and a master’s ...
Introduction: "Anna" migrates and returns home
Download PDF (62.3 KB)
Anna (a pseudonym) was 35 years old when she and her husband decided to move to Australia in 1991. They returned to Hong Kong two and a half years later. Anna described herself as Hong Kongese before she emigrated, distinguishing this cultural identity from that of Chinese. ...
1 - A short history of two hundred years of Hong Kong migration and identity
Download PDF (123.0 KB)
In order to understand the experiences of return Hong Kong immigrants in 1999, one needs to examine the complexity of their Chinese identity, which began to form in 1841. The British had claimed the island of Hong Kong ...
2 - Sojourner adjustment and adaptation to new cultures
Download PDF (168.4 KB)
Humans are a peripatetic species, traveling widely for food and territory. Recent biological anthropology research indicates that 3,500 years ago, residents of coastal China migrated eastward across the Pacific Ocean, populating hundreds of islands that make up Micronesia and Polynesia.1 No doubt, early clans and tribes experienced problems in maintaining ...
3 - Returning home
Download PDF (700.6 KB)
Until recently, a popular and stubbornly persistent myth existed throughout the world: once individuals emigrated from their home countries, they were unlikely to return to those countries of origin. This belief was held no more fervently and embedded itself no more passionately into the national psyche than in the United States. As a country of immigrants, ...
4 - Results from the Hong Kong Remigration Project
Download PDF (148.5 KB)
During the Hong Kong Remigration Project, 50 respondents were interviewed resulting in over 100 hours of tape-recorded discussion. Each respondent was asked the same questions, but the ensuing conversations varied as their different answers led to unique follow-up questions. The full interview schedule can be viewed in Appendix A. The recordings were transcribed and ...
5 - Additive identity
Download PDF (134.8 KB)
Albert Cheng, a prodemocracy radio personality, declared his candidacy for the Hong Kong legislature in 2004. While stories of his open criticism of the Hong Kong government and Beijing’s meddling appeared almost daily in the South China Morning Post, Cheng’s exploits were also covered by ...
6 - Subtractive identity
Download PDF (78.4 KB)
There is a long record of both historical and fictional accounts of remigrants feeling uncomfortable on their return home. The Old Testament describes the anguish of the Jews returning to their homeland following the Babylonian exile. Cervantes, the Spanish novelist, described in 1613 the psychological and romantic difficulties of an Estramaduran, who returned to Spain after ...
7 - Global and affirmative identities
Download PDF (100.1 KB)
The Cultural Identity Model (CIM) suggests a third possible identity profile that develops following a cultural transition. The global identity commences from a novel point of departure. Individuals with this profile are multiple sojourners prior to their immigration; that is, over time they have moved in and out of their home countries, primarily for work assignments, and ...
8 - Remigrants and family life
Download PDF (64.9 KB)
Just as migration can change the social landscape of a country in the domains of social structure, religion, language, and politics,1 so can return migration. Macro-level shifts will invariably occur in Hong Kong as a result of the unprecedented number of returnees. However, micro-level, individual transformations are the source of the larger societal changes. ...
9 - Remigrants and professional life
Download PDF (87.3 KB)
Earlier chapters have focused on the identity profiles of return migrants. Hong Kongers have overwhelmingly adopted an additive identity, superimposing their newly learned Canadian or Australian values and customs onto their layered Chinese/British/Hong Kong self-concepts. As we have seen, identity profiles influence a wide range of remigrants’ ...
10 - Confucius and Socrates
Download PDF (77.1 KB)
... Geography, history, politics, economics, and psychology intersect with any investigation of Hong Kong identity. When cultural transitions are added to the mix, the outcome is understandably complex. Flexibility and pragmatism, hallmarks of Hong Kong society, set the tone for overseas adaptations and for repatriation accommodations. The resultant additive ...
11 - The new Hong Kong boomerang
Download PDF (73.1 KB)
The Hong Kong Remigration Project estimates that 500,000 people have returned to live and work in Hong Kong. Speculation, however, is that a portion of these remigrants are not permanent residents but rather belong to a growing global group of transnationals. Participants in this investigation confirm that they have strategic plans for the future regarding their place ...
Appendix A - Hong Kong Remigration Project questionnaire and psychological scales
Download PDF (641.4 KB)
Appendix B - Methods, sample, and qualitative analysis
Download PDF (64.1 KB)
Appendix C - Quantitative analysis
Download PDF (90.1 KB)
Appendix D - Demographic characteristics of research participants
Download PDF (50.0 KB)
Download PDF (51.6 KB)
Download PDF (73.9 KB)
Download PDF (83.3 KB)
Page Count: 364
Illustrations: 18 b/w illus
Publication Year: 2010