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The Last Half Century of Chinese Overseas

Elizabeth Sinn

Publication Year: 1998

The papers collected in this anthology look at Chinese overseas, residing in five continents in the half century after the Second World War, from many new perspectives.

Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU

Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-x

This book is an anthology of select papers presented at 'The Last Half Century of Chinese Overseas: Comparative Perspectives' Conference held from 19 to 21 December 1994. The conference, hosted by...

Contributors

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pp. xi-xiii

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1. Introduction: Migration and New National Identities

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pp. 1-12

The essays in this volume have been written in response to a call for comparative studies on the Chinese overseas and with an emphasis on migration during the second half of the twentieth century.! This means that more attention has been...

Part I: Overview

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pp. 13-14

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2. Upgrading the Migrant: Neither Huaqiao nor Huaren

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pp. 15-34

All the key words in the title of this chapter need definition. Let me begin with the concept of migrant. This has been an evolving concept, and the changes in the meaning of the word migrant (including immigrant and emigrant) have been specially interesting during the twentieth century. The word in its broadest sense...

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3. Groundlessness And Utopia: The Chinese Diaspora and Territory

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pp. 35-48

There is an ancient Chinese poem which says, 'Wherever the ocean waves ouch, there are overseas Chinese',1 Overseas migrations have thus long been a fact of Chinese Iife.2 They spread out from the southern and eastern peripheries (Nanyang and Taiwan), and then were extended to cover the island constellations of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. At last, ...

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4. 蕭玉燦主義的歷史命運 (The Xiao Yucan Principle and Its Historical Destiny)

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pp. 49-62

Xiao Yucan (Siauw Giok Tjhan) was one of the most influential, as well as one of the most comroversial, leaders among the Indonesian Peranakan. The so-called 'Xiao Yuean Principle' is in fact a political ideology he proposed to promote the assimilation of Indonesian Chinese with the host country around 1954 when the Baperki (The Consultative Body for ...

Part II: Identity and Ethnicity

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pp. 63-64

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5. Preserving Bukit China: The Cultural Politics of Landscape Interpretation in Melaka's Chinese Cemetery

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pp. 65-80

Among Chinese overseas populations and communities, Malaysia and its port city Melaka represent prominent places of historic Chinese settlement and trade, and centres of debate over meaning and identity in contemporary Chinese culture and politics. Chinese in Malaysia make up 28 percent of the total population, which forms the largest Chinese 'minority' population ...

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6. Representations of ‘the Chinese’ and 'Ethnicity' In British Racial Discourse

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pp. 81-90

While the history of Chinese settlement in Britain can be traced back nearly two centuries,1 the presence of the Chinese in mainstream political, economic and social institutions still remains extremely limited today. Despite being noted as the third largest ethnic minority group on a national level, and the largest in some local regions, for example, Surrey, Essex ...

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7. Emerging British Chinese Identities: Issues and Problems

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pp. 91-114

I want to start with an observation: how little Chinese people in Britain have figured in debates about the Chinese diaspora when Britain's presence in East Asia in many ways propelled Chinese migration, and has just finished another chapter in the story. The research I have conducted over the last few years is intended to rectify this absence. Through a nationwide ...

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8. Integration or Segregation: The Dutch And South African Chinese Compared

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pp. 115-138

A survey of literature on Chinese communities throughout the world reveals extreme differences in terms of size, social structure, occupational specialization and degree of assimilation. A picture of Overseas Chinese communities as a product of a given and static culture brought along from China and expressed in organizational forms, entrepreneurship, social ...

Part III: The Diaspora in Europe

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pp. 139-140

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9. Chinese Immigrants in Denmark After 1949: Immigration Patterns and Development

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pp. 141-166

Researchers have only lately considered immigrants in Denmark, not being a typical immigrant country, as a research topic, Immigrants arrived in significant numbers during the late 1960s, but the Danes themselves were late in realizing that these so-called guest-workers were actually settling. The Chinese community, being one of the minor immigrant groups, has ...

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10. Living Among Three Walls? The Peranakan Chinese in the Netherlands

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pp. 167-184

At the end of the t 9805, there were about 60 000 ethnic Chinese in the Netherlands, among whom were 7000 Peranakan Chinese. They are Chinese descendants, born in Indonesia but who later emigrated to the Netherlands. They played prominent...

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11. The Chinese and Chinese Districts In Paris

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pp. 185-200

Chinese statistics estimate at 210000 the population of Chinese origin (Huaren) living in France.1 I do not know the statistical source of this estimate. Indeed in France there is no data concerning the ethnic origins of its inhabitants. In the framework of a census or a survey. questioning people about their ethnic origin could appear discriminatory and would ...

Part IV: The Asia Pacific Front

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pp. 201-202

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12. Becoming ‘Chinese Canadian’: The Genesis of a Cultural Category

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pp. 203-216

In the study of the Chinese diaspora, important changes in terminology have taken place in the last two decades. In Chinese, the character Huaqiao (Chinese sojourners) was once used generally to refer [0 all ethnic Chinese outside China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. In his earlier work, Professor Wang Gungwu has located the historical origin of the term at around the ...

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13. Political Participation Amongst Chinese Canadians: The Road to the 1993 Election

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pp. 217-228

The history of Chinese Canadian political life has seen a gradual, seamless evolution from a China-dominated to a Canada-dominated view of politics. For a long while Chinese Canadians, almost all resident in British Columbia, focused their political activism on political change in China. Major revolutionary and reformist figures in Chinese politics of the late Qing, ...

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14. 神戶的中國人與中國人社會 (The Chinese and Their Chinese Community in Kobe)

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pp. 229-240

The number of ethnic Chinese in Japan was 218 585 at the end of 1994, much smaller than those in Southeast Asia or North America. The majority of Chinese in Japan have come from mainland China, especially Shanghai, since the late 19705 with the opening and reform policy adopted in China. These sojourning Chinese rend to congregate in big cities such as ...

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15. 從日本華僑敎育的當地化傾向看日本華僑社會的當地化趨勢 (The Indigenization of Overseas Chinese in Japan as Seen from the Indigenization of Their Education)

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pp. 241-260

Unlike other Chinese communities overseas which have been assimilated gradually into the host nations since the Second World War, the Overseas Chinese communities in Japan still for the most part stay away from the host society, maintaining their own Chinese schools and traditional volunteer associations. Only recently could the trend of indigenization ...

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16. 越南華人經濟形態的轉變 (1975-1993) (The Changing Pattern of the Vietnamese Chinese Economy, 1975-1993)

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pp. 261-276

Historically, ethnic Chinese business in Vietnam had been mainly concentrated in the south, especially Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City). h was estimated that [he total investment of ethnic Chinese in South Vietnam reached TWO billion US dollars in 1974. However, with the unification of Vietnam in 1975, the Chinese communities there experienced a disaster ...

Part V: New Focus on Australia

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pp. 277-278

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17. Astronaut Families and Parachute Children: Hong Kong Immigrants in Australia

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pp. 279-298

In recent years, there has been increased migration from Hong Kong to Australia, just as there has been to the USA and Canada. Some of the migrants have subsequently returned to Hong Kong to take up employment or run businesses there, often leaving family members in the new country. From this pattern of migration evolved the 'astronaut families and ...

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18. The Changing Characteristics of Chinese Migrants to Australia During the 1980s and Early 1990s

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pp. 299-346

In recent years, Hong Kong, Macau, the People's Republic of China, Singapore and Taiwan have become of increasing economic importance for Australia. An examination of Australia's recent trade data indicates that in 1994 the People's Republic of China was ranked as Australia's sixth main trading partner, Singapore seventh, Taiwan eighth, Hong Kong ...

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19. Gold Mountain No More: Impressions of Australian Society Among Recent Asian Immigrants

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pp. 347-370

In reviewing the theory, methods and substance of research 0 11 ethnic relations in Australia, Inglis notes that two important factors have been particularly influential: a researcher's Institutional location and his source The last twenty years have witnessed major changes in both ... rather than research being confined to universities it is now increasingly located ...

Part VI: Chinese Overseas in Comparative Perspectives

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pp. 371-372

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20. Chinese Immigration to Australia and South Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Legislative Control

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pp. 373-390

While immigration has always been a feature of human behaviour, legislation to regulate it has only characterized receiving countries during the last few centuries.1 The first immigration restriction act was introduced in Britain towards the end of the...

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21. Settlement Experiences of Recent Chinese Immigrants in Australia: A Comparison of Settlers from Hong Kong, Taiwan and China

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pp. 391-422

During the 1980s there was a major shift in the patterns of Australian immigration. For the first time since the nineteenth century Asian immigration became an important element in Australian immigration, as 40 percent of all permanent immigrants were drawn from countries in East, Southeast and Southern Asia. At the same time, there was also an ...

Part VII: Ethnicity, Religion and Communal Development and Qiaoxiang: Chinese Overseas and the Home Village

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pp. 423-424

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22. The Role of the True Jesus Church in the Communal Development of the Chinese People in Elgin, Scotland

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pp. 425-446

This chapter was part of a study of the Chinese in Britain starting in the second half of the 1980s. The target group of the study was constituted of Chinese migrants who were dispersed outside the metropolitan areas in Britain. Little research has been done on these Chinese because of their dispersal, often in small numbers. However, together they made up almost ...

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23. 現代中國少數民族人口境外遷移初探 : 以新彊、雲南為例 (The Migration of Minorities in Modern China)

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pp. 447-462

It is estimated that there are more than 3 100 000 Chinese minority emigrants living in 60 countries and regions today. Of them, 90 percent cluster in {he countries neighbouring China. The Chinese minority emigrants are mainly from Xinjiang and Yunnan, the two provinces in The factors pushing and pulling those minorities to emigrate to the ...

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24. 山東省日照市旅韓華僑的調查報告 (Report of Fieldwork on the Returned Overseas Chinese of South Korea in Rizhao City, Shandong Province)

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pp. 463-474

This chapter, based on interviews with returned Overseas Chinese from South Korea in Rizhao City, seeks to assess the economic situation of Overseas Chinese in that country. For Shandong people, unlike those of Guangdong and Fujian, the traditional sojourning destination country since the late nineteenth century has been Korea. According [Q official ...

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25. 戰後中國大陸客家人海外移民剖析 : 梅州地區人口國際遷移情況的調查 (Emigration of Hakka from China after the Second World War)

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pp. 475-484

This paper argues that the rise and fall of the, emigration of Hakka from determined by the situation in China and abroad since 1945. The fieldwork conducted by the author in 1994 demonstrates that Hakka emigration overseas reached its peak between 1946 to 1951, when China was in political turmoil. The period from the mid-1950s to the...

Glossary

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pp. 485-486

Bibliography

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pp. 487-508


E-ISBN-13: 9789888052912
Print-ISBN-13: 9789622094468

Page Count: 524
Publication Year: 1998