Learning Diversity in the Chinese Classroom
Contexts and Practice for Students with Special Needs
Publication Year: 2007
Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU
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Inclusive education most commonly refers to students coming together, bringing both their strengths and weaknesses, to build a learning community. It refers to the placement and education of students with disabilities in general education classrooms with students of the same ages who do not have disabilities, which gives them a feeling of belonging with other students, teachers, and support staff. ...
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This book concerns students with special needs. What makes it unique is that our focus is on students from societies that are based on the Confucian heritage. These students are found not only in classrooms in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan, and Korea, but also in many classrooms around the world, including those in the West. ...
Section I - The Chinese Classroom
1 - The Regular Chinese Classroom
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Schools are places where students come to learn. Behind this truism, however, lies a great deal of diversity. Each school develops a unique culture as a consequence of its importance in the wider community; and, as pointed out in Marsh (2000), the culture of a school has both an anthropological and aesthetic basis, which contribute to its unique character. ...
2 - Critical Issues in Diversity and Schooling within Asia
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This chapter explores some of the key issues relating to diversity and schooling in eleven countries in Asia: the ten member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), plus the People’s Republic of China (China). ASEAN was initially formed in 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, and later joined by Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma) and Vietnam. ...
3 - Conceptions and Challenges within the Inclusive Asian Classroom
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Although inclusive practice originated in the West at least two decades ago, various conceptions of inclusion in education continue to be adopted around the world. Inclusion has been implemented in one form or another in many countries, with its development in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America generally considered to be the most mature. ...
4 - Classroom Diversity: Towards a Whole-School Approach
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The acceptance of and provision for people with disabilities in community life has changed quite dramatically since Wolfensberger’s proposal in the early 1970s of what has become known as “the normalization principle” (Forlin, 1997). In the intervening period, there have been many international conventions on the rights of people with disabilities, and most developed and developing countries have become signatories to the goals they have set. ...
Section II - Catering for Learning Diversity
5 - Including Children with Motor Disabilities and Health Impairments
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Children with physical disabilities or health impairments are part of the broad group of children with special educational needs. Various physical disabilities and health conditions present challenges to children and their teachers in the classroom, and to the children’s parents. Some of these children may also have cognitive disabilities, constituting a small but nevertheless important group with multiple disabilities; but...
6 - Specific Language Impairment and Hearing Impairment
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Without effective communication and competency in a language system we cannot operate fully in the world as interactive human beings. Communication and language helps define who we are and how we are viewed by others. It follows that those who have difficulties with communication and language may be marginalized in society and unable to realize their full potential. ...
7 - Giftedness within the Confucian-heritage Cultures
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The focus of this chapter is gifted education in several countries and regions with a Confucian-heritage culture (CHC), namely China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. With the growing awareness of the specific educational needs of gifted students in these countries, Western conceptions of giftedness commonly provide the theoretical basis for the education of gifted students. ...
8 - Students with Visual and Perceptual Difficulties
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Visual impairment poses significant obstacles to a child’s learning because learning is normally dependent on visual information. In order to be able to assist a visually impaired student in the classroom, teachers have to understand the nature of visual impairments and the various effects they have on the child. ...
9 - Including Students with Intellectual Disabilities
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To align with the rest of this book, this chapter has a Confucian focus. It starts by reviewing Confucius’ fundamental perspectives on education and disabilities, and their influence in China and other Chinese societies. It then describes the general basics of the field in terms of definitions, causes, and learning characteristics. ...
10 - Understanding and Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
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Emotional disturbance (ED) was mentioned as one of the twelve varieties of education disabilities in the USA’s Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1990 (IDEA). The IDEA, formerly known as Education for All Handicapped Children (1975), and amended in 2004, advocated the need for students with ED to have equal access to education (US Department of Education, 2004). ...
11 - Including Students with Learning Disabilities
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The first time that the term “learning disability” (LD) appeared in print was in Kirk’s (1962) article in Educating Exceptional Children where it was defined as: ...
Section III - Whole-School Approaches to Learning Diversity
12 - Developing Inclusive Schools in Hong Kong
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This chapter reports case studies of four Hong Kong schools progressing toward inclusion; see Dowson et al (2003). The study was an important affirmation of the positive effects on schools that undertake a move toward inclusion, as they increasingly achieve quality education for all students. ...
13 - A Chinese Perspective on Guidance and Counseling for Diverse Learners
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This chapter presents a Chinese perspective on guidance and counseling that attends to the emotional, personal and social needs of learners with diverse learning needs through a whole-person and whole-school approach. Framed by the historical and cultural evolution of guidance and counseling in traditional Chinese and Confucian-...
14 - Classroom Management for Children with Diverse Learning Needs
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At a time when the inclusive classroom is being actively promoted in many countries in Asia, teachers and parents frequently ask how a diverse classroom can be managed effectively. To ensure they create and maintain an effective classroom, teachers have to develop an intellectual framework for thinking not only about how to teach but also about ways of catering for the diverse learning needs of individual students. ...
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Page Count: 520
Illustrations: 29 b/w illus
Publication Year: 2007