Town Planning Practice
Context, Procedures and Statistics for Hong Kong
Publication Year: 2000
Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU
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There are several features of town planning that support and encourage a broader range of arguments and points of view than found anywhere else in the urban development process. Two that stand out are firstly, the multidisciplinary backgrounds of key actors involved who, besides professional planners, are urban designers, engineers, surveyors, environmental scientists, ...
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There are many books on planning written by planners with professional training in architecture, geography, law or surveying. This book is written by a planner with training in law and economics. It is written primarily for those who take pleasure in knowing about the practice of town planning in Hong Kong, and those who are under pressure to know more about the...
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The authors would like to thank the following organizations and people for their help: The Government Information Services for permission to use their photographs shown here as Photographs 4.1 to 4.4; Miss Christine Suk Han Chan, ARICS, AHKIS, for Photograph 2.1; Mr David W. P. Wong, Registered Architect and Authorized Person, for his kind assistance in the preparation of Figures 3.3, 3.4, 3.5a and...
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PART 1 - CONTEXT AND PROCEDURES
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1.THE PRACTICAL NEED TO UNDERSTAND TOWN PLANNING FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONS, DEVELOPERS AND INVESTORS
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Consider the following stories about town planning which could happen in real life. STORY 1 Mr Lee is a newly appointed solicitor trainee and an intended home-buyer for a new flat in a large private residential development with good sea-view. He has signed a non-binding preliminary sale and purchase agreement with the developer in a pre-sale under the consent scheme. His colleagues have heard ...
2.TOWN PLANNING IN A LEASEHOLD LAND SYSTEM
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The concept of planning for Hong Kong as a high-rise and high-density built environment is an intriguing one . To the tourist who is fascinated by the crowdedness of the business hub of the metropolis (Photograph 2.1) with the chaotic skyline of tower blocks, he or she may wonder whether planning exists. However, if the tourist travels to one of the new towns, he or she may ...
3. ELEMENTARY TOWN PLANNING TECHNIQUES AND URBAN DESIGN
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This chapter discusses the importance of presentation in planning matters and presents the basic concepts, considerations, steps and requirements in planning for the following scenarios: a new town, an urban site and a rural site. When the author was recruited as an assistant town planner by the Hong Kong government in the early 1980s, all new appointees to the Town Planner ...
4.TOWN PLANNING AND THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
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For the sake of simplicity, let us consider an idealized development cycle (Figure 4.1) for a greenfield site under complete government ownership. The first key event begins with a decision to be made by the government for the development of a new town or a new area (for instance, the Cyberport and Disneyland). This decision may or may not fit in with the Territorial Development Strategy (TDS) or Subregional Development Review processes. It is usually preceded or followed...
5. CHANGE IN USE
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'Change in use' is probably the most difficult and yet important of all topics in planning practice. One dimension of 'change in use' is the situation in which the government exercises enforcement actions in her contractual or statutory capacity against current land uses that are allegedly in breach of lease conditions, the Buildings Ordinance or the Town Planning Ordinance. A number of problems for self-study are given in the questions section...
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Public participation is a concept in town planning that emerged in the late 1960s in some Western countries. However, it was not until the late 1970s that public participation became an established legal right in some jurisdictions. An instance is the New South Wales Planning and Assessment Act of 1979, which provides statutory rights for the public to participate in (a) the planning study conducted before the plan is made; (b) the actual planning...
PART II - ANALYSIS OF PLANNING APPLICATION STATISTICS BY ZONE: 1975-1998
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Advancement in learning, science and business is based on solid facts. The study and practice of planning is no exception. Developers, consultants and researchers in the planning profession in Hong Kong need to gain key information about planning applications for various purposes. These may include the identification of precedents and statistics to help prepare or advance ...
7. SOURCES AND TYPES OF DATA
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Information was obtained from the planning application forms for decided s. 16 cases lodged in with the Planning Information and Technical Administration (PITA ) Unit of the Planning Department, 17/F, North Point Government Offices. The application forms are available for public inspection, but they are not on loan or for sale to the general public. In our research, a total of 5986 applications for 11 types of zones were ...
8.UNSPECIFIED USE ZONES
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'Unspecified Use' (U) zoning mainly exists in Development Permission Are a (DPA) Plans. As DPA Plans are gradually replaced by Outline Zoning Plans (OZP), it is usually rezoned as 'Undetermined' in the OZP. To assist applicants, a set of Town Planning Board (TPB) guidelines — Town Planning Board Guidelines for Planning Application for Factory I Workshop/Warehouse Use within 'Unspecified Use' (U) Zones on Development ...
9. COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT AREA ZONES
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The 'Comprehensive Development Area' (CDA) zoning was originally known as 'Other Use (Composite Redevelopment Area)', which was first introduced in the 1970s to cover all street blocks. The intention of this zoning was to ensure that the land zoned would be redeveloped in a comprehensive fashion. In a 'CDA' zone, there was no Column 1 or always permitted use. This means ...
10. OPEN STORAGE ZONES
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The 'Open Storage' (OS) zoning is designated with the planning 'intention' to provide areas for meeting the demand for open storage and regularizing existing open storage uses within the area zoned. This zoning is said to provide for the rational location for open storage of goods which cannot be accommodated in conventional godown premises. Table 10.1 shows an example of uses under Column 1 and...
11. GREEN BELT ZONES
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The 'Green Belt' (GB) zoning is not restricted to the rural areas. It can be found in new towns and urban planning areas. Planning applications in urban statutory plans are quite common. There is a policy ruling that development within this zone is generally not permitted. Only where there is a strong planning ground may an application for development of a limited scale be ...
12. GOVERNMENT/INSTITUTION/COMMUNITY ZONES
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The 'Government/Institution/Community' (G/IC) zoning is intended to provide the subject district and sometimes adjoining districts a variety of government, institution and community facilities. Examples include schools, indoor games centres, swimming pools and hospitals. In Table 12.1, Column 1 and Column Table 12.1 A n example of Column 1 and Column 2 Uses within a Government/ ...
13. HOTEL ZONES
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Before 1998, there was no specific zoning for 'Hotel' (H) use. In response to the recommendations of the 'Visitor and Tourism Study for Hong Kong', a site at the waterfront in Ma On Shan Area 100 was zoned specifically for hotel use as 'OU-Hotel' zone on Ma On Shan Outline Zoning Plan No. S/MOS/5. The Column 1 and Column 2 uses of such zone are listed in Table 13.1 below. ...
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The Industrial' (I) zoning is planned to provide space for industrial activities. Yet, owing to the restructuring process of the economy, most industrial establishments in Hong Kong have been relocated to mainland China and premises in factory buildings vacant. Two trends in industrial zone development can be observed. One is the redevelopment of industrial buildings...
15. COMMERCIAL / RESIDENTIAL ZONES
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Within the 'Commercial/Residential' (C/R) zones, residential and commercial uses such as retail shops, restaurants and offices are permitted as of right. The planning intention of this zone is to allow flexibility for redevelopment into either commercial or residential uses, or a combination of commercial and residential uses. An example of Column 1 and Column 2 uses is shown in ...
16. RESIDENTIAL ZONES
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Depending on the development intensity planned for, the 'Residential' zoning can be further classified into four categories, namely 'Residential (Group A)' (R(A)), 'Residential (Group B)' (R(B)), 'Residential (Group C)' (R(Q), 'Residential (Group D)' (R(D)) and 'Residential (Group E)' (R(E)). R(A) and R(B) zones can be found in most urban planning areas whereas R(C) and R(D) exist mainly ...
17. SUMMARY OF SUCCESS RATES IN PLANNING APPLICATIONS:1975-1998
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Tables 17.1 and 17.2 list the average success rates of s. 16 applications and s. 17 (1) reviews under various classes of zoning that were examined in our research. For all zones, the success rate of s. 16 applications was higher than that of s. 17 (1) reviews. For s. 16 applications, the success rates of different classes of zones ranged from 48% to 92% while those of...
18. REASONS FOR REJECTING PLANNING APPLICATIONS
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The Town Planning Board has 25 major reasons for rejecting planning applications. They are shown together with an 'Others' group as Reasons A to Z below. The description for each reason is extracted from the relevant paragraph in the letter of the Board that rejects the application, with the case number indicated in brackets. Reason A: Against Planning Intention 'It is against planning intention which is to maintain predominately residential...
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In the new millenium, the physical planner of Hong Kong is confronted wit h two main challenges. The first challenge is posed by the concept of sustainable development. The government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong SAR Government, 1998 ) has espoused to adopt 'sustainable development' as the principle of policy and legislative development. This stance ...
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GLOSSARY OF HONG KONG PLANNING TERMS
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Page Count: 260
Publication Year: 2000