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Perspectives on Marine Environmental Change in Hong Kong, 1977-2001

Brian Morton

Publication Year: 2003

Here, eminent marine scientists and local researchers who have attended the workshops express their views on the many changes in Hong Kong's surrounding waters.

Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU

Title page, Copyright

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pp. iii-iv


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pp. v

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pp. ix-x

Nine, research-based, malacological (1977, 1983, 1992), wetland (1993) and marine (1980, 1986, 1989, 1995, 1998) workshops have been organized by the University of Hong Kong and their results published in proceedings volumes by Hong Kong University Press in 1980, 1982, 1985, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1997, 1999 and 2000. As will be described, the proceedings volumes...

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pp. xi-xiii

To facilitate, organize and complete a research workshop requires the co-operation of many people and institutions. First, the participants. Each has to receive funding to attend and the national organizations of numerous countries have assisted in the provision of travel grants. It is not possible to identify all...

List of Participants

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pp. xv-xxvi

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Previous Conference Proceedings

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pp. xxix-xxx

The Malacofauna of Hong Kong and Southern China II, edited by Brian Morton and David Dudgeon. 1985. 2 vols., 689 pp., illustrated, paperback. ISBN 962 209 120 2 (Set). Proceedings of the Second International, Workshop on the Malacofauna of Hong Kong and Southern China, Hong Kong, 1983. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. The Malacofauna of Hong Kong and Southern China III, edited by Brian Morton. 1994. 528 pp., illustrated, paperback...

Conference Programme

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pp. xxxi-xxxvi

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In Memoriam—M.J. Daniel (2 June 1945 - 4 January 2002)

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pp. 1-4

The Swire Institute of Marine Science and Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Michael J. Daniel, known by all as 'Mike', died from a heart-related problem on 4 January 2002, aged 56, while on holiday in Morocco. He will be very sadly missed by a great number of friends and colleagues all over the world....


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pp. 5

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The History of Marine Science in Hong Kong (1841-1977)

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pp. 7-29

In this new millenium, politicians, policy makers, government planners, and entrepreneurs debate strategies on how to secure Hong Kong's future as an 'international city of world prominence'. Within this vast 'sea of words' there is an increasing awareness that Hong Kong's grow...

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Hong Kong's International Malacolgoical, Wetland and Marine Biological Workshops (1977-1998): Changing Local Attitudes Towards Marine Conservation

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pp. 31-71

Although the history of marine science in China is long, that of Hong Kong is not. It began with Geoffrey Herklots (1903-1986) who initated the teaching of biology at the University of Hong Kong in 1928, with the foundation of a faculty of science in 1939 and of a department of biology in 1941, although the latter largely became concerned with the post-war development of local fisheries...


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pp. 72

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Biodiversity of Marine Fungi in Hong Kong Coastal Waters

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pp. 75-92

Surveys of the biodiversity of marine and mangrove fungi in Hong Kong coastal waters yielded 166 species (104 ascomycetes, 53 mitosporic fungi, 3 basidiomycetes and 6 straminipilous organisms). Eighteen of these species are new. The City University Culture Collection of Hong Kong maintains 4,800 strains of marine fungi either on agar slopes or in 10% glycerol at -80°C. Various aspects...

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Marine Nanoplanktonic Diatoms from the Coastal Waters of Hong Kong

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pp. 93-107

Marine nanoplanktonic diatoms have been either frequently underestimated or overlooked in phytoplankton investigations due to their small size (2-20 pm) which will mostly pass through a regular phytoplankton net of 70 jim pore size. Seventeen water samples (each 700-1000 ml) were collected from around Hong Kong Island in September 1999 for nanoplanktonic diatom identification using electron microscope (both TEM and SEM). The results...

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The Nemerteans of Hong Kong: Their diversity, Origins and Endemism

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pp. 109-119

Thirty-nine species of nemerteans have so far been recorded from Hong Kong and its surrounding region, comprising 11 species of palaeonemerteans, 17 species of heteronemerteans, ten species of monostiliferous hoplonemerteans and one species whose taxonomic placement cannot be determined. These species are distributed between 28 genera. Although 30 of these taxa (77%) are at...

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Marine Oligochaete Assemblages in a Hong Kong Mangrove and Adjacent Foreshore Sandflat, with a Description of a New Species

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pp. 121-135

This study reports upon preliminary results obtained during the course of a quantitative study of marine oligochaete assemblages associated with different habitat types and tidal elevations at the Ting Kok mangrove, New Territories, Hong Kong. Triplicate samples, each with a surface area of 18.45 cm2, were obtained from twelve stations encompassing the mangrove, its seaward edge a....

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Hong Kong's Isopods

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pp. 137-166

The Isopoda is the largest order of crustaceans, aside from the Decapoda. Isopods are a diverse group of crustaceans and a major constituent of many littoral faunas. A considerable number also occur in freshwaters and on land: yet others are parasites. ...

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A Reinterpretation of the Taxonomy and Zoogeography of Pakistanapseudes and Swireapseudes (Crustacea: Tanaidacea): Hong Kong Taxa in the World Context

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pp. 167-194

In 1997, the apseudomorph tanaidacean genus Swireapseudes Bamber was described as a sibling genus to Pakistanapseudes B%E3cescu, from material discovered in Hong Kong. These two genera were considered to show a constrained distribution through the northern Indian Ocean to the South China Sea. Subsequently...

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New Species of Amphipoda from Hong Kong Shores

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pp. 195-207

Two new amphipod species are described from the marine littoral of eastern Hong Kong. A new species of Kamaka (Corophiidae) was collected from seagrass beds in the New Territories, at Lai Chi Wo and Sheung Sze Wan. Unlike the only other described species with a swollen article 4 of the second antennal peduncle in the mature male, that article in the new species bears a ventrodistal process, reminiscent...

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The Pontoniine Shrimp Fauna of Hong Kong and the South China Sea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae)

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pp. 209-257

The pontoniine shrimp fauna of the South China Sea is reviewed. The present fauna consists of 116 species in 31 genera. The most conspicuous genus is Periclimenes, with 54 species. Eight genera...

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A Taxonomic, Distributional and Bibliographic Checklist of Hong Kong Marine Bivalve Molluscs and Research Published on Them from 1971-2000

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pp. 259-310

The Hong Kong Bivalvia have been studied extensively during the last 30 years. This inventory provides a summary of 167 publications that include Hong Kong bivalves, either as primary objects of the research or as ancillary objects of broader studies. Two hundred and seventy-eight species are incorporated in the list with details of locality and habitats where available. Also included is a summary of...

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Hong Kong's Subtidal Oysters (Bivalvia: Ostreidae and Gryphaeidae)

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pp. 311-327

Between 23-27 April 2001, a trawl survey was conducted in the coastal waters of Hong Kong for the collection of benthic marine fauna. Of the 29 stations surveyed, oysters (Bivalvia: Ostreidae and Gryphaeidae) were collected from ten only. These were located in Tolo Harbour, Mirs Bay and the southern waters of Hong Kong. The specimens...

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Morphological and Mitochondrial DNA Characteristics of Two Cultured Species of Cupped-Oysters (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Hong Kong: Towards a Significant Taxonomic Name Change

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pp. 329-344

Cultured cupped-oysters species in Hong Kong have rarely been differentiated properly due to similarities in shell characters. This study attempted to characterize putative Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea ariakensis by morphological and genetic means. Allometric ratios of shell height/length and depth/length were significantly different between the two species. Restriction fragment length polymorphism...


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pp. 345

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Distributions, Diets and Reproduction of Hong Kong Sacoglossa (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia): a Summary of Data, 1980-2001

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pp. 347-365

Sacoglossan opisthobranchs were first recorded from Hong Kong in 1985. Of the 13 species then identified, four had been collected between December 1980 and January 1981 and ten were collected in April 1983. Four species and one genus were described as new. Additional species and ecological information...

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Seasonal Changes in the Planktonic Copepod Community of the Southeastern Coastal Waters of Hong Kong

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pp. 367-387

Seasonal variations in the copepod assemblage of the southeastern coastal waters of Hong Kong were studied using 127 plankton samples collected monthly from six stations between January and December 1997. Samplings were made by vertical tows from the seabed to the surface using a 125-pm mesh Hensen plankton net. Ninety-eight copepod species were recorded, including 47 calanoids...

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Variations in the Abundance and Structure of the Planktonic Copepod Community in the Pearl River Estuary, China

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pp. 389-400

Planktonic copepods form an important component of zooplankton and contribute significantly to secondary production in the Pearl River Estuary. The Pearl River is the largest river in southern China. Areas around the estuary are influenced by the cold and dry northeast monsoon from October to March and the warm and wet southwest monsoon from May to September...

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Temporal variations in Apseudes mortoni (Crustacea: Tanaidacea) densities on an intertidal mudflat at Futian, Deep Bay, China

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pp. 401-407

The Futian tidal mudflat is situated on the northeastern coast of Deep Bay, across the Shenzhen Estuary from Mai Po, Hong Kong. Apseudes mortoni is a dominant species in the mud and temporal variations in its numbers may have important effects on the resident macrofaunal community. Three stations on a transect across the flat were sampled for macrofauna every 45 days...

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Mussels: catalysts to understanding change on rocky shores

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pp. 409-432

Mussels are extremely abundant and widely distributed organisms throughout the coastal and estuarine waters of the world's oceans. In temperate seas, species of Mytilus predominate, but in tropical-subtropical regions these are generally replaced by other zone-forming genera such as...

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An Historical and Biogeographical Analysis of the Marine Planktonic Copepod Community in Hong Kong: a Record of Change

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pp. 433-457

Although zooplankton biomass was assessed in Hong Kong waters in the 1970s, the first taxonomic survey was not conducted until the 1980s. To date, 151 marine planktonic species, distributed among 31 families, have been recorded from studies concentrating on Tolo Harbour, southeastern coastal waters and the Pearl River Estuary. The common...

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Temporal changes in a Hong Kong Mangrove and Adjacent Foreshore Sandflat Meiofaunal Communities

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pp. 459-473

Temporal changes in the abundance of major taxa making up three meiofaunal communities were monitored over a two-year period from June 1998 to June 2000 in the Ting Kok mangrove, New Territories, Hong Kong. The three communities represented three habitats, i.e., the mangrove, the mangrove seaward edge and the adjacent foreshore sandflat, each...

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Histological Description of Embryonic Development in the Chocolate Hind, Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch, 1790) (Serranidae: Epinephelinae)

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pp. 475-478

Histological techniques were applied to study the embryonic development of Cephalopholis boenak. The blastodisc underwent six synchronous mitotic divisions before entering blastulation. The optic vesicles began to invaginate at...

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Contributions of the Hong Kong Malacological and Marine Workshops to the Comparative and Ecological Physiology of Intertidal Invertebrates

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pp. 479-515

Extensive research on the comparative and ecological physiology of intertidal invertebrates has been conducted at the Malacofauna of Hong Kong and Southern China and Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China research workshops conducted in Hong Kong every three years from 1977 through 1998. Fifty-one papers on the comparative or ecological physiology...


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pp. 517-

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Long-term Water Quality Trends in Hong Kong

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pp. 519-536

Based on 15 years' continuous data from the Environmental Protection Department's marine monitoring programme, Hong Kong's marine water quality is reviewed and trends identified. It is demonstrated that improvements in water quality in terms of increasing dissolved oxygen levels and reducing nutrient concentrations are becoming visible in semi-enclosed areas where...

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Prevention of Aquaculture Pollution Using Seaweeds

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pp. 537-542

Marine pollution recently has become more and more serious in China. With the rapid growth and development of aquaculture, China is now the World's leading aquaculture country. In 1999, mariculture production in China reached 9.7 million tonnes, comprising 8 million tonnes of molluscs, 1.1 million tonnes of seaweeds and 0.6 million tonnes of fish and crustaceans. Marine pollution arising from aquaculture...

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Reducing Nitrogen Pollution Loading from Fish Farming by Changing Feeding Practices: An Example from Hong Kong

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pp. 543-554

Traditionally, marine fish farmers in tropical and sub-tropical regions feed their fish with trash fish. This results in high feed wastage and adds a significant pollution load to the receiving water. The Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government has developed a moist pellet feed with a view to improving feeding efficiency and reducing...

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The Effects of Organotin Pollution on Nassarius festivus (Powys, 1835) (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) in Hong Kong

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pp. 555-578

Organotin pollution in Hong Kong causes imposex in Nassarius festivus. Evidence of organotin contamination has been shown for Tai Tam Bay, Tung Chung Bay, Shui Hau, Chi Ma Wan, Ting Kok, Starfish Bay, Tai Mong Tsai, Pak Sha Chau and Lai Chi Wo. More detailed studies were undertaken at Tai Mong Tsai...

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Changes in Benthic Infaunal Communities in Tolo Harbour: Will the Trend Continue?

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pp. 579-592

Macrobenthic infaunal data collected in Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong from 1975, 1980, 1986, 1997 and 1999 were reviewed and analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results showed that there has been an overall decrease in species diversity in the study area. Cluster analysis also revealed a spatial change in species composition from the inner to outer parts of the harbour. Sediments in which relatively few to nil infaunal species were recorded have...

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The Occurrence of Seabed Debris in Hong Kong: A Comparison of Changes Between the 1995 and 2001 Trawl Surveys

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pp. 593-613

A comparison of seabed debris collected during two trawl surveys in Hong Kong waters, one in 1995 and the other in 2001, was made to identify any changes in composition and abundance. The most abundant seabed debris was plastic items, comprising mainly domestic and fishing gear. Discarded...

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Hong Kong's Penaeid Prawns: A Decade Long Record of Change in Community Composition

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pp. 615-653

This paper presents the results of a series of benthic trawl surveys to examine spatial and temporal changes in the species composition and distribution of penaeid prawn resources in the northeastern, eastern, southeastern and northwestern waters of Hong Kong, representing a full spectrum of marine conditions...

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Effects of Long-term Anthropogenic Perturbations on Three Subtidal Epibenthic Molluscan Communities in Hong Kong

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pp. 655-717

This paper presents the results of the 1992, 1995, 1998 and 2001 benthic trawl surveys carried out in the waters of Hong Kong. It aimed at identifying any temporal and/or spatial changes in three subtidal epibenthic molluscan communities in the northwestern, southeastern and eastern sectors of Hong Kong's...

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Overfishing and Changes to the Fishing Industry in Hong Kong

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pp. 719-737

The status of fisheries in Hong Kong's development priorities was high before and after the Second World War when food was scarce and the sea seemed to offer the most reliable source of supply. Government's post-war fisheries development effort was directed towards the mechanization of the fleet, expansion of the resource base and increased productivity. With Government's financial assistance...


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pp. 739

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The Status of Horseshoe Crabs in Hong Kong

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pp. 741-756

Horseshoe crab stocks are diminishing not only locally but also regionally and protection of the three known Asian species, that is, Tachypleus tridentatus, Tachypleus gigas and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, is now becoming a matter of urgency. In Hong Kong, horseshoe crabs were known to occur in great numbers in Deep Bay and Tolo Harbour ten or twenty years ago but today...

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The Status of Scleractinian Corals in Hong Kong, with a Survey of Divers' Opinions

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pp. 757-781

Past scientific studies regarding the status of scleractinian corals in Hong Kong have revealed their degradation over time and where the natural environment was disregarded in the pursuit of development. This study examines the degradation of Hong Kong's corals over time. A questionnaire survey was designed for local divers in an attempt to gather information regarding the current...

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Studies of Inner Deep Bay, Pearl River Estuary, Hong Kong: Contributions to the Management of Urbanised Estuaries in Southeast Asia

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pp. 783-796

A summary is made of the fundamental ecological processes underpinning the success of Inner Deep Bay as a wildlife conservation area in the face of intense human activities. Decades of human activities have dramatically altered the physical habitat structure, water quality and nutrient dynamics in the estuary. Though seriously affected by anthropogenic organic pollution,...

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Marine Protected Areas in Hong Kong: Progress Towards Coastal Zone Management (1977-2002)

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pp. 797-824

With an area of 1,098 km2, inhabited by 6.8 million people, the land of Hong Kong is highly managed with building plots sold to the nearest metre. Surprisingly, over 40% of Hong Kong land is designated as country parks. With a sea...

E-ISBN-13: 9789882202429
Print-ISBN-13: 9789622096417

Page Count: 864
Publication Year: 2003