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The Order of Man

A Biomathematical Anatomy of the Primates

Charles E. Oxnard

Publication Year: 1983

This book is an attempt to look broadly at the biological Order of Man. It reviews more than two decades of study of present-day primates using data and methods not hitherto made available in one place nor to the general reader.

Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU

Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-ix

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiv

This book is an attempt to look broadly at the biological Order of Man. It reviews more than two decades of study of present-day primates using data and methods not hitherto made available in one place nor to the general reader. ...

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CHAPTER 1 Human Fossils - The New Revolution

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pp. 1-8

These are most exciting times for all who have interests in the evolution of humans and our nearest living relatives, apes, monkeys and prosimians. This has been signalled, in a way that can have been missed by no one, by the spate of fossils that have been found in Africa and elsewhere in the past few years. A topic that once warranted little more than a column in the national presses during the silly season now occupies prime space and time in every national and ...

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CHAPTER 2 Distinguishing Primates

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pp. 9-23

Although the new methods and the new logic introduced in Chapter 1 are most important in understanding primate evolution, we must never forget that current advances depend upon the very solid groundwork of many decades, indeed many centuries, of study of the Order Primates. It would be quite incorrect to think that this basic work should all be ...

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CHAPTER 3 Mathematical 'Dissection' of Anatomies

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pp. 25-87

Understanding anatomical fragments in the evolutionary context depends upon first obtaining information about the structural differences that truly exist and second attempting to make judgements about the biological meaning of the discovered differences. Classically, when assessment by the human eye and judgement by the human mind ...

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CHAPTER 4 Biological 'Meaning' of Structures

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pp. 89-113

Once differences in structure have been defined, as, for instance, by the methods of the last chapter, we can try to assess their biological (evolutionary) meaning. For some workers the fact and nature of structural differences are alone the result of the process of evolution, and speculation about evolution is therefore made directly. But for the great ...

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CHAPTER 5 Upper Limbs and Tension

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pp. 115-151

Studies of fore limb function in vertebrates, especially mammals, are many fewer than for the hind limb and have usually been aimed at quadrupedalism. Thus, in his consideration of quadrupedal structure using the model of a table, Gray (1968) treats fore limbs essentially in the same way as hind limbs, although it is true that he differentiates ...

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CHAPTER 6 Lower Limbs and Leaping

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pp. 153-201

Leaping seems, intuitively, a very obvious behaviour. An animal, whether at rest or during movement, propels itself into the air, moves in a ballistic flight pattern and then lands. Although leaps may be upward, horizontal or downwards, although they may end in running, flight or swimming, as well as in a posture on a solid ...

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CHAPTER 7 Four Limbs and Quadrupeds

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pp. 203-225

Although the subject of our last chapter, leaping, is a conspicuous activity of many primates, the most general form of locomotion among primates is simple four-footed movement. And this, of course, though it may depend somewhat more upon one pair of limbs than upon the other, enjoins for the ...

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CHAPTER 8 Whole Primates - Their Arrangement by Anatomies

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pp. 227-282

The studies of prior chapters have shown us several views of primate structure. Chapter 2 demonstrates that, if we look at a wide variety of anatomical features, such as external characteristics of faces, genitals, hands and feet, internal features of teeth, jaws and skulls, and varieties of pelage colours and types, we find the currently accepted arrangements of the primates. This shows the generally linear ...

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CHAPTER 9 Whole Anatomies - Their 'Dissection' by Primates

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pp. 283-306

The main bulk of the multivariate morphometric studies (described in this book in Chapters 5, 6 and 7) have been aimed at analysing a variety of individual parts of primates. The question that is being asked in each case is: how do these anatomical regions arrange the different primate genera? In each case the answer seems to relate to function. ...

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CHAPTER 10 Human Fossils - The New Revolution - Revisited

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pp. 307-334

The preceding studies have yielded a great deal of information about the living primates in their own right. Indeed, that is the main reason for their being undertaken. In addition, however, such a body of knowledge is an indispensable background to anyone wishing to study fossil primates by these same methods. That background can especially be used to study the history of the primates whenever reasonably large collections of fossils and large portions of the entire ...

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NOTA BENE

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pp. i-xi

Two important developments have occurred since this book went to press; they greatly increase the information available to us about two of the fossil groups most critical for understanding early human evolution. The first of these stems from a large number of newly published studies of australopithecines, mostly about the recent finds from the Afar valley in Ethiopia. The second comes from a large amount ...

References

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pp. 335-351

General Index

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pp. 353-358

Index of Animals

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pp. 360-362

Author Index

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pp. 363-366


E-ISBN-13: 9789882202368
Print-ISBN-13: 9789622091047

Page Count: 392
Publication Year: 1983

Research Areas

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Subject Headings

  • Primates -- Anatomy -- Mathematics.
  • Primates -- Anatomy.
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