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Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China IV

Brian Morton

Publication Year: 1997

This collection originates from the Eighth International Workshop on the subject held in Hong Kong in April 1995. The 31 papers deal with aspects of the taxonomy and ecology of Hong Kong's marine life with particular reference to the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve and the benthic fauna of its territorial waters.

Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU

Contents

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pp. v-vii

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Introduction

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pp. ix-xi

In 1977, the University of Hong Kong organized a small research workshop on the molluscan fauna of Hong Kong and southern China. That workshop was attended by eight overseas and ten local scientists and students and produced a modest Proceedings volume of 365 pages comprising nineteen original research papers. The 1977 workshop was an experiment, the principal aim of which was to bring overseas experts to Hong Kong who could help us investigate our diverse molluscan fauna, work with local scientists and help train and stimulate local students. ...

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Acknowledgements

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pp. xiii-xiv

Research workshops are different from conferences and seminars in that the participants actually 'do' something and to help them work requires much logistic support. It is, first and foremost, a pleasure to thank the former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Hong Kong, Professor Wang Gungwu, for his support of the workshop by providing funds which allowed planning to proceed, boats to be booked and encouraged participants to believe it would take place and, thus, to plan to attend. ...

Participants

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pp. xv-xxii

TAXONOMY

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Actinosporea from Hong Kong marine Oligochaeta

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pp. 1-7

Five types of actinosporeans are described from preserved specimens of Hong Kong marine oligochaetes. Aurantiactinomyxon type 1 was found in Pacfidrilus vanus, Aurantiactinomyxon type 2 in Pacifidrilus darvelli and Limnodriloides toioensis, and Aurantiactinomyxon type 3 in Pacifidriius vanus. Sphaeractinomyxon type 1 parasitised Aktedrilus mortoni and Sphaeractinomyxon type 2, Ainudrilus geminus. This is the first report of actinosporeans from Southeast Asia and the first report of Aurantiactinomyxon from a marine oligochaete. ...

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New benthic nemerteans from Hong Kong

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pp. 9-29

...Thirty species of nemerteans have so far been recorded from the Hong Kong region (Stimpson 1855, 1857; Humes 1942; Gibson 1990a; Gibson and Sundberg 1992), although six of these, established entirely on the basis of their external features, are either invalidated or identified as nomina dubia by Gibson (1995). Humes (1942) record of the brachyuran egg predator Carcinonemertes mitsukurii Takakura, 1910, is of uncertain validity. ...

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An annotated checklist of the Nemertea recorded from the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong

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pp. 31-36

...The Cape d' Aguilar Marine Reserve on the southeastern tip of Hong Kong Island consists of a shallow protected bay, open coastline and the exposed eastern shores of Cape d' Aguilar, with the two interconnected offshore islands known as Kau Pei Chau. The geology and general biology of the reserve have recently been described by Morton and Harper (1995). ...

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Additional notes on the taxonomy of the marine Oligochaeta of Hong Kong with a description of a new species of Tubificidae

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pp. 37-52

Six species of Tubificidae are described from Hong Kong for the first time. One, Gianius eximius sp.nov., is new to science. It is characterized by multiple penial setae arranged in cone-shaped bundles, heavily muscular atria and the unusual position of the spermathecal pores in segment XI, i.e., the same segment as that of the male pores. ...

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A new species of Prionospio (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong

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pp. 53-61

Prionospio rugosa n. sp. is described from subtidal sediments within the Cape d' Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong. It differs from other Prionospio species by an almost Tshaped prostomium and by the presence of a ventral crest on setiger 9. The new species shares pinnate branchiae on setigers 2 and 4 with members of the Prionospio complex. However, a pylogenetic analysis of selected Prionospio species indicates a closer relationship with P. ehlersi Fauvel, 1928, a species in which pinnate branchiae are restricted to setiger 2. ...

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New species of the Copidognathus gibbus group (Acari: Halacaridae) from Hong Kong

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pp. 63-76

Four species of the gibbus group, genus Copidognathus, were collected from benthic habitats in Hong Kong. C. daguilarensis sp.nov., C. strictulus sp.nov. and C. vicinus sp.nov. are described, and the original description of Copidognathus strigellus Bartsch is supplemented. Species, closely related to these four Copidognathus, are known from the eastern Indian Ocean, the warm-temperate Atlantic and the southeastern Pacific. ...

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Peracarid crustaceans from Cape d'Aguilar and Hong Kong, I. Mysidacea and Isopoda: Anthuridea

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pp. 77-86

Incidental records of mysid and anthurid isopod crustaceans collected in April 1995 from the Cape d' Aguilar Reserve, Hong Kong, are reported, together with a description of a new species of anthurid isopod of the genus Amakusanthura collected from the Tolo Channel, Hong Kong, in 1986, for which both male and female specimens were available. ...

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Peracarid crustaceans from Cape d'Aguilar and Hong Kong, II. Tanaidacea: Apseudomorpha

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pp. 87-102

Apseudomorph tanaidacean material is analyzed from the coastal waters of Hong Kong, between 0 and 25 m depth, collected from the Cape d' Aguilar Marine Reserve in April 1995 together with specimens collected from the New Territories in 1986 and 1989 held at the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, U.K. Three species new to science are recorded, one each in the genera Apseudes and Discapseudes and one in the newly erected genus Swireapseudes, to which the Vietnamese species Apseudes tenuicorporeus Shiino is also attributed. ...

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Peracarid crustaceans from Cape d'Aguilar and Hong Kong, III. Tanaidacea: Tanaidomorpha

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pp. 103-142

Tanaidomorph tanaidacean material is analyzed from the coastal waters of Hong Kong between 0 and 25 m depth, collected from the Cape d' Aguilar Marine Reserve, together with other material from the New Territories collected in 1986 and 1989 and held at the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, U.K. All of the six species recorded are new to science, one each in the genera Tanais, Zeuxo, Heterotanoides, Leptochelia and Pseudonototanais and one in the newly erected genus Charbeitanais. This last species exhibits adaptation to living within a sponge. ...

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Pycnogonids (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong

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pp. 143-157

The pycnogonid material collected within the Cape d' Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong, in April 1995 is described, together with one specimen housed in the museum of the Swire Institute of Marine Science. The 38 specimens represented 6 species, including the first (topotypic) females of Tanystylum sinoabductus and a new species of Pycnogonum. Other than these two 'endemics', the species recorded show Indo-West Pacific distributions. ...

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The Arminidae (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) of Hong Kong

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pp. 159-187

...Although numerous species of the nudibranch suborder Arminacea have been described, very little is known about their anatomy (Garcia and Garcia-Gomez 1990a,b). Most anatomical descriptions are more than 100 years old, e.g., Bergh (1866, 1874, 1880). Three species have been recorded from Hong Kong previously (Orr 1981; Lin 1990, 1992). During April 1995 numerous representatives of the Arminidae were collected in trawl samples from Hong Kong waters. These animals are anatomically described in the present study and their systematic affiliations discussed. ...

THE CAPE D'AGUILAR MARINE RESERVE

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The Oligochaeta of the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong

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pp. 189-204

Thirty species of marine Oligochaeta (23 Tubificidae, 7 Enchytraeidae) are reported from a small area (0.2 km2) of intertidal and subtidal habitats constituting the Cape d' Aguilar Marine Reserve at the southeastern corner of Hong Kong Island, South China Sea. The local diversity of this area is 42 % (30 of 71 species) of the Hong Kong regional marine oligochaete diversity. The biogeographic affinity of seven species is in the Indo-West Pacific area, nine species are more or less circumtropical, and fourteen are unknown outside the Hong Kong region. ...

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Phytal meiofauna of a rocky shore at the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong

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pp. 205-217

The phytal meiofauna of the rocky shore at Lobster Bay (Hok Tsui Wan), Cape d' Aguilar, was surveyed in April 1995. A total of eighteen groups of meiofauna has been recognized from ten algal samples, of which benthic copepods and free-Iiving marine nematodes were the predominant groups, with mean abundance and dominance values of 68.1 individuals.g-1 dw algae and 60.2%, and 32.8 individuals.g-1 dw algae and 22.7%, respectively. ...

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The distribution of ahermatypic corals at Cape d'Aguilar, Hong Kong

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pp. 219-233

A survey of the ahermatypic, typically non-scleractinian, corals within the Cape d' Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong, identified 15 species of Gorgonoidea belonging to four genera and including Echinogorgia complexa, a new record for Hong Kong, two species of Antipatharia from one family (Antipathidae), three species of Dendrophyllia from one family (Dendrophylliidae) and two species of A1cyonoidea from one family (Alcyoniidae) and including Eleutherobia indica, a further new record for Hong Kong. ...

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Disconisca stella (Gould, 1860), an intertidal inarticulate brachiopod from the Cape d’Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong

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pp. 235-247

Discinisca stella is a small inarticulate brachiopod which lives attached firmly to boulders both sub-tidally and intertidally within Lobster and Telegraph bays. Although the presence of this species in Hong Kong has been noted by a number of early brachiopod workers its presence has been relatively ignored by more recent zoologists. ...

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An undescribed macrofaunal assemblage from shallow subtidal sands at the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong

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pp. 249-261

The shallow subtidal sands of Lobster Bay within the Cape d' Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong, are highly dynamic and comprise a coarse, well-sorted, shell gravel of which biogenic calcium carbonate makes up, on average, 76.8% of the weight. Rock fragments of local lithologies and organic material make up, on average, 12.2% and 11.0%, respectively. An earlier study obtained fifty-eight species of microbenthos from the bay but, because of the sampling methods employed, failed to collect the larger taxa present. ...

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Muricid predation upon an under boulder community of epibyssate bivalves in the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong

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pp. 263-284

In Lobster Bay, within the Cape d' Aguilar Marine Reserve, there are a number of bivalve species which are byssally attached to the undersurfaces of large, stable, boulders. Isognomon legumen, Cardita leana, Hormomya mutabilis, Barbatia virescens, Stria rca symmetrica and Didimacar tenebrica are the six most abundant species. They are eaten by at least three species of muricid gastropods, i.e., Morula musiva, Thais clavigera and T. luteostoma. ...

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Ovulids (Gastropoda) associated with gorgonians (Anthozoa: Gorgonoidea) at Cape d'Aguilar, Hong Kong: species, hosts, distributions and feeding ecology

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pp. 285-301

Seven species of ovulid gastropods associated with gorgonians in the Cape d' Aguilar Marine Reserve are illustrated and the colours and markings of their bodies described. The two largest species, Phenacovolva brevirostris and Phenacovolva rosea, were parasites and grazed the flesh of their hosts, exposing the skeleton. The other five species were commensals and appeared to graze mucus, detritus and/or epiphytes from their host's surface, inflicting no wounds. Ovulids occurred consistently on the same host species and were of the same colour. ...

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Mucus production by species of Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in Hong Kong

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pp. 303-314

Mucus production by species of Siphonaria from Hong Kong was investigated by comparing it in stationary and mobile individuals. Mucus produced by stationary animals was collected by forceps and razor blade after attachment to glass in air for 10 minutes. Mucus produced by mobile animals crawling on glass in air was removed by razor blade. ...

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Temporal variation in malate dehydrogenase loci from Nerita albicilla (L.) (Gastropoda: Neritidae) at the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong

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pp. 315-323

Four samples of Nerita albicilla were collected between 1993 and 1996 from Lobster Bay, Cape d' Aguilar, Hong Kong Island and investigated for allelic variations at gene loci sMDH-1* and sMDH-2* which have been assumed to encode supernatant malate dehydrogenase (E.C. No. 1.1.1.37) in the Neritidae. The isozymes were separated using isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. ...

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The feeding ecology of the intertidal blenny Entomacrodus stellifer lighti Herre, at Cape d'Aguilar, Hong Kong

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pp. 325-338

The feeding ecology of the intertidal blenny Entomacrodus stellifer lighti is described, including examinations of the diet during April 1995, digestive processes and the alimentary canal. The diet of E. stellifer lighti during the study period was dominated by the turf algae Enteromorpha clathrata and Hincksia mitchelliae. The fish also consumed amphipods and other crustaceans commonly associated with turf algae. ...

HONG KONG'S SUBTIDAL BENTHOS

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Diatom assemblages in surficial sediments along a transect between the Ninepin Island Group and Kowloon Bay, Hong Kong

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pp. 339-359

A sediment grab sample survey of diatom species composition and relative abundance was conducted along a 14.8 km transect between the Nine Pin Islands and Kowloon Bay, Victoria Harbour. A significant relationship between salinity and total nitrogen concentrations along this eastern Hong Kong area transect was correlated with the distribution of a number of dominant diatom species. ...

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Observations on the egg capsules and reproduction of four species of Ovulidae and of Nassarius (Zeuxis) siquijorensis (A. Adams, 1852), (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) from Hong Kong

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pp. 361-370

The egg capsules and reproduction of four species of Ovulidae and of Nassarius (Zeuxis) siquijorensis (A. Adams, 1852) have been studied. The following species of Ovulidae are discussed: Crenavolva platysia Cate, 1973, Crenavolva striatula (Sowerby 1st., 1928), Crenavolva rosea Phenacovolva rosea (A. Adams, 1854), Prionovolva nivea Cate, 1974. The egg capsules and their supposed parent species are figured and their geographical distribution outlined. ...

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Observations on Calyptraea extinctorum Lamarck 1822 (Prosobranchia: Calyptraeidae) from Hong Kong

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pp. 371-379

The sessile and filter feeding Prosobranch Calyptraea extinctorium Lamarck, 1822 from the waters of Hong Kong has been studied. The cap shaped shell is slightly concave in profile. The small septum is shaped like a compressed cornet. It arises at the apex and reaches less than half the distance to the shell periphery. It forms an angle of about 30

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Observations on the incidence of imposex in intertidal and subtidal Neogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Hong Kong

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pp. 381-389

Four species of neogastropods from the coastal waters of Hong Kong display varying degrees of imposex development, the superimposition of male sexual characteristics on the female. Two of the species examined, Thais clavigera and Thais luteostoma are common inhabitants of intertidal rocky shores whilst the other two, Nassarius siquijorensis and Bursa rana, occur subtidally. ...

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Respiration in the subtidal Hong Kong scavenger Nassarius siquijorensis (Gastropoda: Nassariidae)

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pp. 391-399

Oxygen consumption rate with progressive hypoxia was studied for two size groups (mean shell heights of 18.4 mm and 32.7 mm) of Nassarius siquijorensis. Critical p02 was similar for both size groups and was estimated visually to be about 80 Torr. Oxygen dependence indices (K1/K2) were calculated as 35.33

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The impacts of dredging on the epibenthic molluscan community of the southeastern waters of Hong Kong: a comparison of the 1992 and 1995 trawl programmes

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pp. 401-436

Between 1992 and 1995, extensive areas of the sea bed in the southeastern waters of Hong Kong were suction dredged for marine sand to build the new airport and associated infrastructure works at Chek Lap Kok on Lantau Island. The designated areas of sea bed were surveyed, pre- and post -dredging, for evidence of any impacts upon the resident molluscan epibenthos. ...

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The impact of dredging and fishing on the benthic fish fauna of the southeastern waters of Hong Kong

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pp. 437-461

Two beam trawl surveys were conducted in the southeastern waters of Hong Kong in April 1992 and 1995. Species richness, diversity (H'), evenness (J), abundance (σa), biomass (σb) and W-statistics values for the benthic fishes of the survey area were calculated. Changes between the two surveys are discussed in relation to the effects of dredging, since 1991, in part of the survey area. ...

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The epibenthic ichthyofauna of Tolo Harbour and Hong Kong's northeastern waters: a long term record of change

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pp. 463-487

A beam trawl survey was conducted in April 1995 in Tolo Harbour, Tolo Channel and northwestern Mirs Bay, taking samples from 26 stations. A total of 76 fish species from 41 families was identified. Diversity (H') ranged from 0.62 to 2.58, while evenness (J) ranged from 0.21 to 0.89. A positive gradient of increasing diversity and evenness could be seen extending from polluted Tolo Harbour to unpolluted Ping Chau in Mirs Bay. ...

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The tolerance of Hong Kong species of subtidal Nassariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) to anoxia and starvation

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pp. 489-502

From the mid-1980's onwards, Nassarius siquijorensis became dominant in the overall subtidal scavenging gastropod community of Hong Kong's seabed, with percentage dominance in 1995 ranging from 77.4% to 96.0%. The abilities of five subtidal species of Hong Kong Nassariidae, i.e., Nassarius crematus, Nassarius livescens, Nassarius acuminatus, Nassarius succinctus and Nassarius siquijorensis, to tolerate anoxia has been studied. ...

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Hong Kong cephalopods: a brief review of current knowledge and identification of specimens collected in 1995

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pp. 503-513

An update is given of the cephalopod species occurring in Hong Kong waters, with first reports of the sepiolids Euprymna stenodactyla and Inioteuthis sp. Among the points discussed are: (i), confirmation that the inaptly named Octopus hongkongensis is restricted to cold waters off Japan; (ii), clarification of an earlier report on the presence of Hapalochlaena cf.fasciata in the northwestern Pacific...


E-ISBN-13: 9789882202184
Print-ISBN-13: 9789622094376

Page Count: 540
Publication Year: 1997

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Subject Headings

  • Marine plants -- China -- Hong Kong -- Congresses.
  • Marine animals -- China -- Hong Kong -- Congresses.
  • Marine animals -- South China Sea -- Congresses.
  • Marine plants -- South China Sea -- Congresses.
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