The Fragile Scholar
Power and Masculinity in Chinese Culture
Publication Year: 2004
Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU
Preface and Acknowledgements
Download PDF (280.4 KB)
The effeminate young man in traditional Chinese theater has notoriously been considered as a symbol of "lack of masculinity" in Chinese culture by Westerners. In Peking and other local operas, the young male lover is represented by the xiaosheng...
Download PDF (980.0 KB)
Nowadays there are more sociologists and cultural critics who take on a semiotic understanding of gender. They view "femininity" and "masculinity" as arbitrary and conventional signifiers of the "referent," namely sexual difference. Teresa de Lauretis writes, "gender can be subsumed in sexual differences as an effect of language, or as pure...
CHAPTER 1. The Fragile Scholar as a Cultural Discourse
Download PDF (1.3 MB)
This chapter gives a brief account of the development of the caizi-jiaren model for readers who are not familiar with Chinese literary culture. The meaning of "cultural discourse" is also explained here. We can find numerous studies of the caizi-jiaren, but few read the fragile scholar as a cultural discourse. Particularly absent are readings from the...
CHAPTER 2. From Qu Yuan to Student Zhang: A Genealogy of the Effeminate Shi
Download PDF (1.5 MB)
This chapter attempts an intertextual reading of the "emasculation" of the shi (⼠). The term "intertextuality" was first coined by Julia Kristeva1 to refer to the interpretive strategy that "no text is ever completely free of other texts."2 The basic understanding underlying the...
CHAPTER 3. Textuality, Rituals and the "Docile Bodies"
Download PDF (1.0 MB)
R. H. Van Gulik writes that in most of the Chinese caizi-jiaren fiction and drama, the male lead "is described as a delicate, hypersensitive youngster with pale face and narrow shoulders, passing the greater part of time dreaming among his books and flowers, and who falls ill at the slightest disappointment."1...
CHAPTER 4. Caizi versus Junzi: Irony, Subversion and Containment
Download PDF (2.2 MB)
iIn his Theorising Chinese Masculinity, Kam Louie makes the following comments on the "scholar," who, in his view, embodies the wen masculinity:...
CHAPTER 5. Jasper-like Face and Rosy Lips: Same-sex Desire and the Male Body
Download PDF (1.7 MB)
Berthold Schoene-Harwood points out that "any discussion of masculinity would be incomplete without addressing its dichotomous divisions into straight and gay identifications."1 It is now time to go back to the question raised at the beginning of the book: Why was the caizi, an image strongly reminiscent of effeminacy and homosexuality in the eyes of Westerners, accepted by the pre-modern...
CHAPTER 6. Homosocial Desire: Heroism, Misogyny, and the Male Bond
Download PDF (2.0 MB)
In the Analects of Confucius, there is an interesting story on Confucius' meeting with the licentious concubine Nanzi: "Confucius paid a visit to Lady Nanzi. Zilu was not pleased. The master swore: 'If I have done anything wrong, may Heaven confound me! May Heaven confound...
Download PDF (1.4 MB)
Download PDF (788.0 KB)
Download PDF (698.3 KB)
Page Count: 256
Publication Year: 2004