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Educational Leadership and Change

An International Perspective

K.C. Wong ,K.M. Cheng

Publication Year: 1995

The papers selected cover the shifting role of school leaders and their preparation; the latest trend in management of devolving administrative responsibilities to schools; and the cultural dimension of educational administration. Drawing on experiences from different parts of the world, this volume explores the above issues and reflects the differences in practice.

Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU

Table of Contents

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pp. v-vii

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pp. ix-x

Hong Kong hosted the regional conference of the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration in 1992. The term 'regional' was, however, a misnomer. This was a truly INTERNATIONAL conference, symbolizing the international role which Hong Kong has developed. From that conference emerged this book.

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pp. xi-xii

With the breakneck speed of educational development and the ever-increasing expenditure required to feed its voracious appetite for resources and trained personnel, the role of administrators is of vital importance. The Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration (CCEA) makes it possible for educational administrators to be part of a wide, supportive network providing a comprehensive resource base for professional expertise, ...


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pp. xiii-xiv

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pp. 1-12

This book is the result of the Regional Conference of the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration held in Hong Kong in August 1992. However, this is not the proceedings of the Conference. Efforts have been made to select the relevant papers to form a coherent theme. We choose 'Educational Leadership and Change: An International Perspective' as the title to reflect our emphasis.

Section A. Setting the Scene

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1. The Evolution of Change and the New Work of the Educational Leader

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pp. 15-27

The deliberate study of educational innovation and reform began in earnest in the 1960s. The quality and nature of leadership, of course, has always been seen as vital to the success of any change initiative. What this means in practice, however, has been elusive largely because the concept of change itself has been undergoing transformation over the past three-and-a-half decades.

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2. School-Based Management: Will It Fly?

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pp. 29-27

The call for restructuring of schools has come from many quarters. Most would agree that schools need to be restructured to meet the challenges facing our society. Yet there is no consensus as to how this restructuring should take place. Some argue for increased autonomy for schools, others call for increased testing and standardization of curricula, and still others contend that schools should be held more accountable for their results.

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3. The Self-Managing School: A Matter of Being and of Becoming

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pp. 43-57

The story is told of the village barber who shaves all those in the village who do not shave themselves. The question is: Does he shave himself? Thankfully, schools are not barber shops, and the issue of schools managing themselves do not encounter this same kind of problem. Or do they?

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4. Thinking About School Restructuring: A Case and Some Observations From Research in Progress

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pp. 59-69

We hear a great deal these days about the necessity for fundamental restructuring of schools, by which reformers mean changing the basic structures, work patterns, and relationships in schools in order to achieve a higher level of performance. I would like to address the relevance of school restructuring to the preparation of educational administrators, and I would like to do so in the context of a specific case drawn from research that I am doing with two colleagues, Penelope Peterson and Sarah McCarthey.

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5. Management of Educational Innovations: The 'Six-A' Process Model

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pp. 69-85

Studies and research on educational change between the 1960s and 1970s were mainly analytical with efforts concentrated on identifying factors pertinent to change, on categorizing different change models, and on implementation strategies. In the 1980s a number of studies on excellence and success in business firms, as well as in public services like the NHS (National Health Services, UK), has shifted the emphasis to the instrumental side of managing organizational changes.

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6.The Neglected Dimension: Cultural Comparison in Educational Administration

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pp. 87-102

Yet I noticed that drawing attention to the cultural components in our points of view is a risky strategy which polarizes the audience.' In this presentation, I will start by relaying to you a summary of my observations or 'hunch' about the cultural characteristics of education in East Asian societies. It started as a side product of my attention to education ...

Section B. Devolving Responsibility to Schools

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7. School-Community Relations: The Principal's Role

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pp. 105-113

Considerable attention has been devoted to the understanding of leadership in school settings. Historically, studies of leadership first concentrated on identifying leadership qualities then shifted to an exploration of various identified leadership styles. More recently the focus has been on the study of leadership styles within specific areas or situations, for example educational leadership in small island states.

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8. Roles and Functioning of Boards of Governors of Provincial High Schools in Papua New Guinea

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pp. 115-130

The 1970 Education Act made possible, among other things, the provision for the establishment of governing bodies for each educational institution. This provision was reaffirmed in the 1983 Education act which superseded the previous Act. For Provincial High Schools (offering grades 7 to 10) these governing bodies are called Boards of Governors (hereafter referred to as the 'Boards').

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9. Challenges of the Future to School-Based Management: The Indian Context

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pp. 131-140

'School-based management' as a concept is a manifestation of decentralization and also a means of school reform. It implies greater flexibility and autonomy in decision making at the school level, keeping in view the actual needs and available resources, changes in role accountability for the school principal, participatory approach to the management of school affairs and the potential enhancement of school efficiency and productiry.

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10. School Management Initiative in Hong Kong - The Devolution of Power to Schools, Real or Rhetoric?

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pp. 141-153

Like many parts of the world, the provision of education for children and youth has been a major endeavour of the Hong Kong government.1 In 1992-93, the proposed expenditure in education takes up 16.8%2 of the government budget, of which close to 70% is spent on schools.

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11. Parental Choice and School Decision Making: Operating in a Market-like Environment

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pp. 155-171

In this chapter we shall describe and present some results from a pilot study of the interaction between parental choice and school decision making (the Parental and School Choice Interaction (PASCI) Study) being conducted in England and Wales with support from the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).1 We shall frame the discussion of this research ...

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12. Educative School Executive Teams and the Productivity of Schools: An Applied Research Project Proposal

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pp. 173-186

Could it be time to progressively refine Tasmanian state schools' evaluation policies and performance management practices by developing an innovative management education programme for cohorts of school executive teams and measure and evaluate the outcomes in classrooms? Apart from the practical benefits, the significance of the proposal lies in its potential to produce a sophisticated causal story of school productivity.

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13. Three Possibilities for Progress in Educational Administration: Reform, Techno-Science Rationality, Research

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pp. 187-197

During the 1980s major changes occurred in the field of educational administration and management. A multiplicity of factors constituted the contexts for change, not the least of which were interests exterior to practice. Political and economic concerns in particular hosted sweeping changes in the management of states across the world. With surprising similarity, state and national governments chose to intervene in public sector administration ...

Section C. Preparing School Leaders

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14. The Teaching Profession in an Uncertain World

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pp. 201-212

The argument of this paper is that the traditional concept of a profession has for some time been under attack and the term professional has become de-coupled from profession to connote, as an adjective, the process by which the directives of others are carried out skilfully and efficiently, and as a noun a person whose work can be characterized in this way.

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15. Professional Leadership and Quality Education

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pp. 213-224

Many major reports published in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States over recent years have stressed the critical importance of education for the future social and economic well-being of society in the twenty-first century. Some focus on the need for a well-educated work force to enable economic development to continue in an age of high technology.

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16. A Professional Council for Teachers

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pp. 225-232

It is often argued that if teachers are to be regarded as full members of a profession, they should have a Professional Council which lays down standards for their work, and which is responsible for admission to the profession in the country concerned. Such arrangements are well-established in most countries in the world for professions like medicine and law, and are thought to have contributed considerably to the high standing in which these professions are held.

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17. School Principals - Entrepreneurial Professionals

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pp. 233-246

This paper examines the ways in which a small number of school principals in England and Wales are making changes to their management structures and processes to cope with an increasingly turbulent environment. Using evidence on a comparative basis from organizations outside education, the paper looks at the way in which a number of principals are adopting ...

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18. Training of Educational Administrators in China

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pp. 247-253

The Chinese government attaches great importance to the training of personnel in educational administration. As early as 1954, the State Council passed a decision to the effect that education departments at central, provincial and district levels should be responsible for the training in tum of leading members of various educational administrative bodies and schools.

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19. The Professional Training and Development of Educational Managers in the Republic of South Africa

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pp. 255-267

Today management, whether in an industrial, commercial, government or educational establishment, has to meet many new challenges that did not face supervisors or educational managers in the past. The really effective educational manager meets these challenges, while planning for future ones. The day-to-day routine of an educational manager might be described by this poster, published in 1976 by Superior Management magazine: ...

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20. Some Theoretical and Practical Implications of an Assessment and Development Centre for Headteachers

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pp. 269-276

While the school system of England and Wales has always placed a heavy burden of responsibility on those who lead it, the situation currently experienced indicates that the effective performance of the headteacher may be even more critical than was previously the case. The variety and complexity of tasks and functions now being handled by the headteacher ...

E-ISBN-13: 9789882201163
Print-ISBN-13: 9789622093874

Page Count: 290
Publication Year: 1995