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Changing Identities of the Southeast Asian Chinese Since World War II

Jennifer Cushman ,Gungwu Wang

Publication Year: 1988

This volume includes many of the papers from that symposium presented by ANU scholars and those from universities elsewhere in Australia, North America and Southeast Asia.

Published by: Hong Kong University Press, HKU

Title Page, Copyright

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CONTENTS

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PREFACE

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pp. ix- xi

In June 1985 , forty historians, economists, anthropologists and political scientists gathered at the Australian National University in Canberra to reexamine current thinking about the parameters of identity for people of Chinese descent who live...

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THE STUDY OF CHINESE IDENTITIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

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pp. 1-22

Studies of the Chinese in Southeast Asia over the past decades have shown that the Chinese have changed and that they are capable o f undergoing further change . There have been studies which point to people who are of Chinese descent but who no longer consider themselves Chinese. Others show descendants o f Chinese who know little about what being Chinese ...

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CHINESE IDENTITIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: ALTERNATIVE PERSPECTIVES

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pp. 23-32

Wang Gungwu, as always, has presented a breathtaking panorama of new concepts, insights , empirical observations , and hypotheses for further elaboration and testing . In my brief comment , I attempt to examine critically his concepts and their application to the study of the Chinese in Southeast Asia. Then I sketch some alternative theoretical perspectives. My ...

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LITERACY AND CULTURE: Introduction

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pp. 33-34

Culture is the cornerstone of identity. This was particularly true for the Chinese who have revered a cultural heritage they regarded as superior to all others. It is a heritage which has moreover, unified disparate groups of Chinese both at home and abroad in the face of the divisions flowing from different dialects, places of origin and social levels. No single institution has been more effective in ...

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CHINESE EDUCATION AND IDENTITY IN SINGAPORE

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pp. 35-60

This essay examines the evolution of Chinese-medium education in Singapore in the post-war decades and its changing input into the sense of identity o f the Chinese-educated . Singapore afford s a particularly interesting case-study in that the Chinese are not, as they are elsewhere in Southeast Asia, in a minority in the population. One may say, however, that ...

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CHINESE INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS IN WEST MALAYSIA: VARYING RESPONSES TO CHANGING DEMANDS

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pp. 61-74

Chinese school s in their traditional form s had existed o n the Malaya n peninsula since the nineteenth century. But it was the political and social upheaval in China in the first two decades o f the twentieth century that spurred a tremendous enthusiasm for and interest in education amongst the overseas Chinese communities . B y 1938...

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CHINESE PUBLICATIONS AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF CHINESE CULTURE IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA

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pp. 75-96

Chinese publications offer one of the mos t interesting , useful , and problematic sources for understanding change s an d developments i n Chinese culture in Malaysia and Singapore during the twentieth century. For anthropologists who value highly the 'native point o f view', these materials vividly ...

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MULTILINGUALISM AND CHINESE IDENTITIES IN INDONESIA

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pp. 97-106

As an ethnic minority in multilingual and multi-dialectal Indonesia, on e of the ways in which the Chinese signify, maintain and shift their different identities is through the use of different languages or language varieties (codes). This paper is an attempt to set up a typology ...

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[Abstract] POST-WAR FICTION IN CHINESE AS A MIRROR OF POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

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pp. 107-108

This paper explores various aspects of post-World War II literature written by Chinese in an effort to determine to what extent this literature reflects the concerns o f Chinese in the region. Much o f the literature surveyed was published i n Malaysia and Singapore, but literature coming from other Southeast Asian countries as well as works written by returned overseas ...

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[Abstract] THE LION AND THE DRAGON: THE STATE,EDUCATION AND IDENTITY IN SINGAPORE

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pp. 109-110

The role o f state institutions in the construction o f Chinese identity is explored in this paper through an examination of the operation o f educational policies in Singapore . Although the Chinese who constitute some 70 per cent of Singapore's population are not a numerical minority, ...

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[Abstract] SOME THOUGHTS ON NATIONAL EDUCATION AND PERANAKAN CHINESE CULTURAL IDENTITY

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pp. 111-112

The paper basically argues that the Indonesian national education system, established since 1950 , supplied a new frame of reference t o those Peranakan Chinese children who went to Indonesian language schools....

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POLITICS AND NATION BUILDING: Introduction

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pp. 113-114

The degree of political commitment held by most Chinese towards their Southeast Asian homes is often underestimated by indigenous political elites in the region. Chinese have traditionally been regarded either as wedded to political parties in Taiwan and the PRC, or at best...

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CITIZENSHIP AND IDENTITY: ETHNIC CHINESE AND THE INDONESIAN REVOLUTION

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pp. 115-128

During the implementation o f the Dual Nationality Treaty between Indonesia and the People's Republic of China, from 1960-62, over two-thirds of the ethnic Chinese who were eligible ...

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NATION-BUILDING AND BEING CHINESE IN A SOUTHEAST ASIAN STATE: MALAYSIA

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pp. 129-164

What is a Chinese in the context of Southeast Asia? This is not as easy to answer as it may appear to be. Indeed Chinese everywhere may bear the label Chinese but the content o f that label, that is,...

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CHINESE NEW VILLAGERS AND POLITICAL IDENTITY IN MALAYSIA

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pp. 165-176

New villages in the Kinta District, like the vast majority o f them elsewhere in Malaysia , are essentially ethnically homogeneous communities...

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THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF THE PHILIPPINE CHINESE, 1946-1984

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pp. 177-204

World War II brought to an abrupt conclusion one period in the history of the Chinese i n the Philippine s and opened the door t o another of a much different order. Before 1946 there was a general consensus ...

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[Abstract] INDONESIAN CHINESE IDENTITY IN HONG KONG

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pp. 205-206

Estimates vary but there are tens of thousands of Indonesian Chinese currently residing in Hong Kong. Most left the archipelago more than two decades ago in the mass repatriation o f the 1960s. Although a few came directly to the colony or made their way through ...

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[Abstract] THE EMERGENCE OF SINGAPORE NATIONALISM

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pp. 207-209

Most theories of nationalism, whether Marxist or non-Marxist, describe it as an ideological phenomenon that had its origins in the emergence of the bourgeoisie in western Europe over the past three centuries. These theories ignore the crucial importance...

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[Abstract] CREATION OF A SINGAPOREAN IDENTITY AMONG THE CHINESE: THE PRE-PAP PHASE, 1945 — 1959

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pp. 209-210

This paper examines three major historical factors for the creation o f a Singaporean identity a s a post-WWI I phenomenon among the Chinese generally and the ...

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[Abstract] KAMPUCHEA'S ETHNIC CHINESE UNDER POL POT:A CASE OF SYSTEMATIC SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION

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pp. 211-212

The most statistically valid survey of the death toll under Pol Pot indicates that half of Kampuchea's 400,000 ethnic Chinese perished during 1975-79. This was apparently the greatest tragedy yet to befall any community of Southeast Asian Chinese...

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[Abstract] CHANGES IN THE CHINESE COMMUNITIES OF HAIPHONG AND HANOI, 1945-1948:THE REPUDIATION OF THE FRENCH CONGREGATION SYSTEM

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pp. 213-214

By late 1948 pressure from the local Chinese communities in Vietnam and from the Nationalist Chinese representatives forced France to abolish the congregation system , the main instrument o f French control over Chinese This pressure on the French ...

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ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: Introduction

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pp. 215-216

Chinese success in business has often been explained in ethnic terms. Chinese reliance on trustworthy kin as managers, on the networks of business associates for credit and market information, and the expectation that people from one's home base will offer a helping hand, are all seen to be important in the ability of Chinese to capture economic advantages over the indigenous populations in the ...

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CHANGING ECONOMIC ROLES AND ETHNIC IDENTITIES OF THE SOUTHEAST ASIAN CHINESE:A COMPARISON OF INDONESIA AND THAILAND

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pp. 217-260

In nearly all countries of Southeast Asia, the economic roles of the overseas Chinese minorities have been changing along broadly similar lines since the latter part of the 19th century...

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CHINESE ECONOMIC ELITES IN INDONESIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

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pp. 261-288

The Chinese in Indonesia, who comprise 2.8% (roughly five million) of the Indonesian population, have been long regarded an economically strong group. They are particularly dominant in trade and to a lesser extent, in finance and industry. Within...

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[Abstract] ETHNIC IDENTITIES AND ASPECTS OF CLASS IN CONTEMPORARY CENTRAL THAILAND

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pp. 289-290

This paper, commissioned for the Symposium, analyzes the economic transformations of late 20th-century Central Thailand, including socioeconomic stratification and class formation, in terms of their relationships to ethnicity and ethnic relations. It emphasizes the importance of viewing ethnicity...

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[Abstract] KINSHIP AND FRIENDSHIP: ECONOMIC TIES AMONG THE CHINESE BUSINESS ELITES OF PENANG AND PENINSULAR SIAM

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pp. 291-292

This paper seeks to assess whether the large-scale Chinese business formations which are receiving increased scholarly attention are departures from that has been regarded as the traditional model, viz., the small-scale, family-owned business, or whether past Chinese business formations...

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[Abstract] THE STRUCTURE OF BANKING CAPITAL IN THAILAND

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pp. 293-294

The paper examines the structure of the most powerful faction of the capitalist class in modern Thailand — banking capital. The development of banking is outlined and the powerful economic position of the owners of banks and finance companies is discussed. From their base in banking...

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[Abstract] FAMILY BUSINESSES IN INDONESIA

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pp. 295-296

With the development of the national economy and credit standing of Indonesia, new opportunities have been made available to the national business sector. This sector comprises economically strong and economically...

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[Abstract] THE EVOLUTION OF MALAYSIAN CHINESE CAPITAL IN THE POST-COLONIAL PERIOD

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pp. 297-298

Malaysian Chinese capital during the colonial period had been basically mercantile in nature. It played a subordinate role to British agency houses as intermediaries in the exchange of the then Malayan raw materials with British manufactured products. Small-scale manufacturing and retail banking...

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[Abstract] CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS, ETHNICITY AND CLASS DIFFERENCES AMONG MALAYSIAN CHINESE IN THE POST-WAR PERIOD

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pp. 299-300

Adherents of the new received wisdom that class conflict and class consciousness among Chinese Malaysians are absent have assumed an overly simple, a cultural conception of 'class', where they have allowed 'class' to...

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ASSOCIATIONS: Introduction

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pp. 301-302

Associations have played a fundamental role in maintaining a sense of identity for Chinese who have emigrated to foreign countries. Some scholars have argued that historically associations have been a negative force in the accommodation of Chinese to their homes overseas, serving to keep them isolated from their new compatriots. In other situations, however, they have eased the way for the ...

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CHINESE ORGANIZATIONS AND ETHNICITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA AND NORTH AMERICA SINCE 1945: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

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pp. 303-318

Overseas Chinese organizations have often been seen as a force retarding assimilation.1 Whatever their intentions, the very presence of such bodies provides continued support and encouragement to Chinese cultural life abroad. One would therefore expect an analysis of overseas Chinese organizational...

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CHINESE ORGANIZATIONS AND ETHNIC IDENTITY IN THE PHILIPPINES

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pp. 319-334

Chinese organizations are formed by immigrants to fulfil different social functions as well as to cope with problems posed by their new environment. The emergence of various types of Chinese organizations in the Philippines and the proliferation of these associations in the post-war years to form a national...

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[Abstract] INDONESIAN CHINESE IN TORONTO, CANADA

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pp. 335-336

Immigrant Chinese in Canada display some of the same patterns of adaptation as did their cousins earlier in Southeast Asia, in their openness to new religious practices and adoption of new occupational and linguistic skills. To Canada, however, the Southeast Asian Chinese bring a double heritage...

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[Abstract] RELIGIOUS ADAPTATION: THE MOSLEM CHINESE IN INDONESIA. A PRELIMINARY VIEW

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pp. 337-338

There are indications that the number of Chinese conversions to Islam in Indonesia is again on the increase. Estimates of the number of Moslem Chinese in 1983 vary from about 20,000 (0.5 per cent of the Chinese population) to 400,000 (some 10 per cent); the correct number would likely be between these...

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[Abstract] THE CHINESE IN AUSTRALIA

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pp. 339-340

This paper begins by noting an estimate of 150,000 (or 1 per cent of the total population) for the number of Chinese in Australia in 1985, but makes the point that the aggregate number is not very salient because o f the great diversity in the backgrounds o f the 'Chinese' in the country. The various categories of people who in one way or another identify (or are identified as ...

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

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pp. 341-344


E-ISBN-13: 9789882200586
Print-ISBN-13: 9789622092075

Page Count: 354
Publication Year: 1988