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Portuguese and Luso-Asian Legacies in Southeast Asia, 1511-2011, vol. 2

Culture and Identity in the Luso-Asian World: Tenacities & Plasticities

Laura Jarnagin

Publication Year: 2012

In 1511, a Portuguese expedition under the command of Afonso de Albuquerque arrived on the shores of Malacca, taking control of the prosperous Malayan port-city after a swift military campaign. Portugal, a peripheral but then technologically advanced country in southwestern Europe since the latter fifteenth century, had been in the process of establishing solid outposts all along Asia's litoral in order to participate in the most active and profitable maritime trading routes of the day. As i... In 1511, a Portuguese expedition under the command of Afonso de Albuquerque arrived on the shores of Malacca, taking control of the prosperous Malayan port-city after a swift military campaign. Portugal, a peripheral but then technologically advanced country in southwestern Europe since the latter fifteenth century, had been in the process of establishing solid outposts all along Asia's litoral in order to participate in the most active and profitable maritime trading routes of the day. As it turned out, the Portuguese presence and influence in the Malayan Peninsula and elsewhere in continental and insular Asia expanded far beyond the sphere of commerce and extended over time well into the twenty-first century. Five hundred years later, a conference held in Singapore brought together a large group of scholars from widely different national, academic and disciplinary contexts, to analyse and discuss the intricate consequences of Portuguese interactions in Asia over the longue durée. The result of these discussions is a stimulating set of case studies that, as a rule, combine original archival and/or field research with innovative historiographical perspectives. Luso-Asian communities, real and imagined, and Luso-Asian heritage, material and symbolic, are studied with depth and insight. The range of thematic, chronological and geographic areas covered in these proceeding is truly remarkable, showing not only the extraordinary relevance of revisiting Luso-Asian interactions in the longer term, but also the surprising dynamism within an area of studies which seemed on the verge of exhaustion. After all, archives from all over the world, from Rio de Janeiro to London, from Lisbon to Rome, and from Goa to Macao, might still hold some secrets on the subject of Luso-Asian relations, when duly explored by resourceful scholars." - Rui M. Loureiro, Centro de Historia de Alem-Mar, Lisbon "This two-volume set pulls together several interdisciplinary studies historicizing Portuguese 'legacies' across Asia over a period of approximately five centuries (ca. 1511-2011). It is especially recommended to readers interested in the broader aspects of the early European presence in Asia, and specifically on questions of politics, colonial administration, commerce, societal interaction, integration, identity, hybridity, religion and language." - Associate Professor Peter Borschberg, Department of History, National University of Singapore

Published by: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies

Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Figures and Tables

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

This book, the second of two volumes, is the outgrowth of an interdisciplinary conference entitled “Portuguese and Luso-Asian Legacies in Southeast Asia, 1511–2011”, that was held in Singapore and Malacca on 28–30 September 2010, co-sponsored by the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Singapore and the Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Bandaraya Campus, Malacca, Malaysia. ...

List of Contributors

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pp. xiii-xvii

Glossary

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pp. xix-xxiii

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Introduction: The Qualitative Properties of Cultures and Identities

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pp. 1-18

Culture and Identity in the Luso-Asian World: Tenacities and Plasticities (Volume 2 of Portuguese and Luso-Asian Legacies in Southeast Asia, 1511–2011) constitutes the balance of papers associated with September 2010 “Portuguese and Luso-Asian Legacies in Southeast Asia, 1511–2011” conference organized by the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore and the Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malacca, Malaysia. ...

PART ONE - CRAFTING IDENTITY IN THE LUSO-ASIAN WORLD

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1. Catholic Communities and their Festivities under the Portuguese Padroado in Early Modern Southeast Asia

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pp. 21-43

The year 1618 was special for the Catholics of Cochinchina (now part of Vietnam). Portuguese Jesuits had established their mission in the country three years previously and this year another group had arrived to found a new church in the small, bustling trading town of Hội An. The Jesuits brought news of an Extraordinary Jubilee: ...

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2. A "Snapshot" of a Portuguese Community in Southeast Asia: The Bandel of Siam, 1684-86

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pp. 44-66

The Portuguese expansion throughout mainland Southeast Asia, with the exception of Malacca, was characterized primarily by its “private” or “informal” attribute — that is, it was based on the connivance of local authorities rather than on effective territorial occupation by Portuguese forces. Furthermore, the actors on the Portuguese side were, for the most part, merchants and veteran soldiers of the Portuguese ...

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3. The Colonial Command of Ceremonial Language: Etiquette and Custom-Imitation in Nineteenth-Century East Timor

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pp. 67-87

Throughout the nineteenth century, Timor was perceived as Portugal’s most remote colonial province, a problematic remnant of the Portuguese maritime empire in Asia. The island was geographically isolated and the administration was militarily weak, economically poor, and enmeshed in multiple political and military conflicts, either between the colonizers and the indigenous, or among colonizers themselves.2 ...

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4. Remembering the Portuguese Presence in Timor and Its Contribution to the Making of Timor's National and Cultural Identity

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pp. 88-112

Culture is a framework of human adventure, a result of time and space, an attempt to contemplate, understand and transform it in pursuit of an ideal of harmony and perfection. A healthy relationship with nature and with the community in which it is housed are the crucial elements of any culture. The true subject of culture is man himself on the basis of “tradition”. ...

PART TWO - CULTURAL COMPONENTS: LANGUAGE, ARCHITECTURE AND MUSIC

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5. The Creole Portuguese Language of Malacca: A Delicate Ecology

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pp. 115-142

Today’s Malacca Creole Portuguese (MCP) are the descendants of Portuguese, Indo-Portuguese, Malayo-Portuguese and diverse camp followers present in Malacca at the time of the Dutch takeover, in 1641. Admixed over the years with Chinese, Indian, Malay, Dutch, Sri Lankan, Filipino and English elements, they survive as a separate ethnic group, concentrated in Malacca in the suburb of Hilir. ...

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6. Oral Traditions of the Luso-Asian Communities: Local, Regional and Continental

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pp. 143-166

To this day, instrumental music and singing still play a prominent role in social events among the Luso-Asian communities, be it at religious services, processions and feasts, weddings, receptions, or whenever the occasion calls for a display of the community’s cultural heritage. This is also true of the Indo-Portuguese communities, for which we have considerably numerous records of oral traditions, ...

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7. Verb Markings in Makista: Continuity/Discontinuity and Accommodation

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pp. 167-178

Makista (PCMac), the Portuguese-based Creole of Macao, came into existence in the wake of the settlement of the Portuguese in Macao in the mid-sixteenth century. As is common to Creole languages created in the sequence of the European maritime expansion, the raison d’être behind their formation lies in the sudden and often forced confluence and coexistence of speakers from diverse linguistic and ethnic backgrounds and, thus, ...

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8. From European-Asian Conflict to Cultural Hertiage: Identification of Portuguese and Spanish Forts on Ternate and Tidore Islands

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pp. 179-207

When one thinks about the Portuguese fortifications in the Malay Archipelago, what immediately come to mind are such images as Malacca’s Famosa or Fort Vitoria on the island of Ambon. Given their prominance, it is not an easy task to present new materials concerning these two Portuguese fortresses. By contrast, several other forts in the region that were built up by the Portuguese and the Spaniards ...

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9. The Influence of Portuguese Musical Culture in Southeast Asia in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

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pp. 208-222

Portugal’s encounter with the world has in many respects already been the subject of academic research. However, relatively little research has yet been done on Portugal’s musical influence as a result of the development of, for instance, its Southeast Asian centres in Goa, Malacca, Macao and Timor. Until today, there have been only few studies of musical life in these centres in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. ...

PART THREE - ADVERSITY AND ACCOMMODATION

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10. Portugal and China: An Anatomy of Harmonious Coexistence (Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries)

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pp. 225-242

The history of Sino-Portuguese encounters — their initial years in particular — has often been told. Cultural dimensions of the exchanges between the two parties also have been studied repeatedly. While there is no need to reiterate those investigations, we obviously cannot proceed without taking into account some of the known details and therefore we will start out by giving a chronologically arranged synoptic introduction. ...

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11. "Aocheng" or "Cidade Do Nome De Deus": The Nomenclature of Portuguese and Castilian Buildings of Old Macao from the "Reversed Gaze" of the Chinese

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pp. 243-256

After the Portuguese became established at Macao in the mid-1500s, they gradually built up the settlement and developed their residential quarters near Lilau and started self-governance by establishing the Senate, the City Wall, the Holy House of Mercy and fortresses. China’s scholar-officials were amazed by all of the infrastructure of Aocheng ...

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12. Enemies, Friends and Relations: Portuguese Eurasians during Malacca's Dutch Era and Beyond

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pp. 257-272

The Portuguese and the Dutch were age-old enemies, and remnants of the historical, political and religious competition between the two nations can still be found in the culture and heritage of the Portuguese Eurasian community in Malacca. Margaret Sarkissian said it best when she observed that whenever the history of the Malacca Portuguese Eurasian community touches on the Dutch era, ...

Appendix: Maps

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pp. 273-300

Bibliography

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pp. 301-328

Index

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pp. 329-368


E-ISBN-13: 9789814345514
Print-ISBN-13: 9789814345507

Page Count: 368
Publication Year: 2012

Edition: 1

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Subject Headings

  • Portuguese -- Southeast Asia -- History -- Congresses.
  • Southeast Asia -- Civilization -- Portuguese influences -- Congresses.
  • Portuguese -- Southeast Asia -- Ethnic identity -- Congresses.
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