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Revolutionary Spirit

Jose Rizal in Southeast Asia

John Nery

Publication Year: 2011

Like his great contemporaries Sun Yat-sen and Mohandas K. Gandhi, the Philippine patriot and polymath JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896) helped write the history of freedom in Asia. His two subversive novels and an immortal last poem helped inspire the first nationalist revolution on the continent and led to the founding of the first Asian republic. But what was Rizal’s impact on the nationalist awakening in Southeast Asia? REVOLUTIONARY SPIRIT argues that by infusing a revolutionary spirit into the struggle to create a Philippine nation in the late 19th century, Rizal ended up invigorating Indonesian nationalism and Malaysian scholarship, regional political discourse and world literature, in the 20th—and remains must reading in the 21st.

Published by: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies

Cover

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p. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. 2-7

Table of Contents

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pp. 8-11

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Foreword

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pp. xi-xiii

On the 150th birth anniversary of Rizal, the publication of this stringently researched study enables us to relate with more conviction our pride in having a novelist lay down the firmest and most durable foundation of the Filipino nation. With the journalist’s eagle eye...

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Message

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pp. xv-17

19 June 2011 is the 150th anniversary of Jose Rizal’s birth. Rizal was a patriot, poet, novelist, scholar and artist. Through his writings, he galvanized the Filipino people into a nation that resisted continued colonization by Spain, although he himself emphasized the difficult...

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Preface

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pp. xvii-xx

In 1986, when Goenawan Mohamad, the prominent Indonesian journalist, was prompted by the post-election turmoil in the Philippines in the last days of Ferdinand Marcos to write an essay on Jose Rizal, he drew a portrait of a conflicted, upper-class thinker, an...

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Acknowledgements

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pp. xxi-xxx

My interest in Rizal dates back to 1977, when my graduation happened to coincide with the centenary of his graduation; it was a milestone the school we both went to celebrated with relish. My interest was renewed over the years, when I reread the Leon...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-45

During his first stay in Europe, Rizal studied for his licentiate in philosophy and in medicine in Madrid, assumed a leadership role in the Filipino community in Spain, apprenticed at a famous ophthalmological clinic in Paris and then in another one in Heidelberg...

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1. Turning Points

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pp. 46-68

His closest friends, like the tireless letter-writer Evaristo Aguirre, understood. “Do not be surprised that I have delayed answering your esteemed letter of 10 November,” Aguirre writes at the end of January, in 1887, by way of excusing his “prolonged silence” in corresponding...

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2. "The Very Soul of This Rebellion"

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pp. 69-86

A hundred fifty years after his birth, and a hundred and fifteen since his execution, it is difficult to appreciate the subversive nature of Rizal’s reputation when he emerged on the political scene. Much of what he dedicated himself to, much of what he served...

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3. Doctor Rizal

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pp. 87-102

The revolutionaries, those who actually took to the battlefield, held Rizal in great esteem. An unusual token of this abiding respect may be found in the instructively erroneous first paragraph of General Artemio Ricarte’s memoirs, written some twenty...

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4. "Halfbloed"

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pp. 103-121

It is an intriguing possibility. On his first voyage to Europe, Rizal struck up a friendship onboard the French steamship Djemnah with two sets of Dutch sisters from the Netherlands Indies. After disembarking in Marseilles, he found to his great pleasure that the...

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5. "No Marx or Lenin"

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pp. 122-142

In 1921, an official holiday to mark the birthday of the Philippine revolutionary supremo Andres Bonifacio was celebrated in the Philippines for the first time; it came a generation after his execution. As labour leader Hermenegildo Cruz was to later recall...

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6. Under the Southern Sun

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pp. 143-160

The announcement, a “commemoration of Jose Rizal,” ran at the top of the back page of the 29 December 1944 issue of Asia Raya. Like other newspapers allowed to publish by the Gunseikanbu, the Japanese military administration, the Indonesian-language Jakarta daily was...

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7. The Hope of Millions in Asia

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pp. 161-171

On 17 January 1946, the first issue of Bakti, a small magazine published in Mojokerto, some 40 miles southwest of Surabaya, saw the light of day. In its devotion to the idea of independence, its earnest polemics and exhortatory rhetoric, it was...

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8. "His Name is Sweet In our Memory"

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pp. 172-189

On 20 May 1962, on the anniversary of the founding of the Budi Utomo — for Sukarno the true beginning of his country’s nationalist movement — the self-styled “Mouthpiece of the Indonesian People” tore into the Dutch, the...

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9. The Myth Busters

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pp. 190-212

At around the time Sukarno fell from political grace, the trailblazing Malaysian intellectual and one-time politician Syed Hussein Alatas lit on the area of study that would define his reputation. “Around 1966, I became interested in the theme of the...

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10. "A Great Historical Experiment"

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pp. 213-230

Crayonpedia has a touch of the Indonesian genius for acronyms. An online study resource based on the Indonesian educational curriculum, it stands for Create Your Open Education Encyclopaedia and manifests a becoming sense of history...

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Epilogue

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pp. 231-233

Every now and then it is said in the Philippines that national hero Jose Rizal influenced the course of the revolution in neighbouring Indonesia. A statement by former vice president Salvador Laurel, chairman of the Philippine Centennial Commission in the...

Appendices

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pp. 237-256

References

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pp. 257-270

Index

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pp. 271-280


E-ISBN-13: 9789814345064
Print-ISBN-13: 9789814345071

Page Count: 280
Publication Year: 2011

Edition: 1