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Energy Issues in the Asia-Pacific Region

Amy Lugg and Mark Hong

Publication Year: 2010

In 2010, we can expect that oil and gas prices will again increase beyond the US$100 per barrel, as the global economy recovers gradually from the global recession and uses more oil and gas. It is therefore important for the general public to read and understand more about complex energy issues which affect their lives. This useful energy book, based on lectures delivered at the ISEAS Energy Forum, as well as papers written by invited experts, provides a means to access energy information. It is part of the ISEAS Energy books series which serves to educate and raise public awareness on energy issues. "As the author of The Grand Energy Transition (GET), I am naturally interested in energy books which discuss renewable energy and electric vehicles. The Grand Energy Transition shows us how to accelerate the transition to the sustainable energy gases of natural gas, wind, solar and hydrogen. What is clear is that we cannot continue with business as usual. It is imperative that energy consumption patterns should immediately begin to change dramatically. For this to happen, the public must be kept informed and mobilized. One excellent tool for public education is the ISEAS energy book with its wealth of information and which covers a wide range of energy issues. I appreciate ISEAS' good work done via the energy seminars and books, and I commend this book as an important read on energy issues." - Robert A. Hefner III, Founder, The GHK Company. "The issues of environment, climate change and energy continue to feature prominently on the international agenda. There is clearly a higher level of public awareness and debate. The Copenhagen Conference focuses global attention on global warming and the rise in sea level, and provides opportunity to take a step towards transition to a low-carbon economy. Shell is working on energy and environmental issues, and continues to contribute resources, technology and skills to these global challenges. This ISEAS energy volume is timely, and a comprehensive in-depth analysis and recounting of the facts and challenges." - Lee Tzu Yang, Chairman, Shell Companies in Singapore

Published by: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute

Title Page, Copyright

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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pp. vii-viii

Up to the point before the financial tsunami lashed upon all our shores, the relentless increase in the demand for energy to feed burgeoning global economic growth had led to a US$150/barrel oil. The impact of this high oil price alone on food, competition for resources and ultimately on costs of living was cause for significant concern. ...

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pp. ix-x

This book is volume two of the ISEAS Energy Perspectives on the Region. It comprises papers based on the seminars delivered by speakers at the ISEAS Energy Forum as well as invited contributions from various experts on energy issues. ...

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The Editors

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pp. xi-xii

Mark Hong is a Visiting Research Fellow at ISEAS. He obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from Cambridge University in 1969 and a Master of Science degree in International Relations from Georgetown University, Washington, DC on a Fulbright Scholarship in 1982. ...

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The Contributors

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pp. xiii-xviii

Andrew Tan is an Associate Professor at the School of Social Sciences and International Studies, University of New South Wales. He has taught various courses, including in the Masters programme in Defence Studies at King’s College London (University of London), part of the renowned Defence Studies Group of leading experts on defence, ...

Southeast Asia

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1. The ASEAN Countries’ Interest in Asian Energy Security

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pp. 3-23

Energy security is an issue of particular significance to ASEAN states as well as other regional states such as India, China, Korea, and Japan. Given the possibility of high oil prices, diminishing oil supplies and increased competition for resources, disputes over territories, and the strategic importance of sea lanes passing through Southeast Asia, ...

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2. Biofuels Development and Prospects in the Philippines

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pp. 24-45

Economic growth is a goal and an aspiration of developing countries such as the Philippines. The challenges to economic growth presented by the escalating prices of petroleum product imports have motivated governments to consider localized and renewable sources of energy as a major aspect of the countries’ energy supply. ...

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3. The Biofuels Industry in Indonesia: Opportunities and Challenges

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pp. 46-61

Energy facilitates all human endeavours. It is used for heating and cooling, illumination, health, food, education, industrial production, and transportation. Energy is essential to life. The development of human society and civilization has been shaped by energy. ...

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4. An Overview of the Cambodian Energy Sector

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pp. 62-100

Cambodia’s power sector has been severely damaged by years of war and neglect. Since 1993, the government has started to restore the electricity infrastructure with support from the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, Japan, France, and other donor countries. The 2007 statistics show that per capita consumption is about 100 kWh per year. ...


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5. India’s Energy Challenges

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pp. 103-121

India is already the world’s fifth-largest energy consumer and is likely to move up to third place by 2030. Its energy needs will grow sharply over the next twenty-five years. Currently, India’s primary energy mix is dominated by coal (51 per cent), followed by oil (36 per cent), natural gas (10 per cent), hydropower (2 per cent), and nuclear (1 per cent). ...

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6. New Partnerships in Energy Security in Asia: India, ASEAN, and Singapore

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pp. 122-138

Energy supplies are the Achilles heel of the rising Asian economies in ASEAN, India, and China. Without assured supplies at affordable prices, the Asian economic boom would soon fizzle. Energy supplies are clearly and directly linked to geopolitics. ...


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7. China’s Global Quest for Energy Security

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pp. 141-173

The purpose of this paper is threefold: to provide the most up-to-date analysis of China’s energy situation; to argue that China’s global quest for energy is primarily driven by its rapid economic growth in recent years, out of insecurity rather than a master plan to dominate the world; and thirdly, that China’s energy security issues have multiple implications beyond simple economic concerns. ...

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8. Energy and Geopolitics in the South China Sea

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pp. 174-200

Despite China’s claim that it wants close and cordial relations with the ASEAN states, the steady increase in its military capabilities and its capacity to enforce its claims in the South China Sea have raised concerns among the ASEAN countries and other powers. The South China Sea is of strategic maritime importance and has potential oil and gas resources. ...

United States

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9. Energy Security and Mitigating Climate Change: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Alternatives to Oil in Asia

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pp. 203-216

How can countries in Asia avoid the pitfalls faced by the United States, with its oil problems? This chapter argues that policy-makers have a wide variety of options available to them, drawing mostly on techniques promoted (but seldom implemented) in the United States and Europe to help reduce dependence on foreign sources of oil. ...


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10. Japan’s Energy Supply-Demand Situation, Energy Conservation Policy, and Energy Challenges

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pp. 219-262

In the decade after World War II, the main energy source in Japan was coal, which was replaced gradually by oil in the 1970s. After the two oil shocks of the 1970s, awareness of the need for energy conservation grew. Active efforts were made to shift to a post-oil economy, with reduced reliance on oil and a shift to coal, natural gas, and nuclear power. ...

Alternative Energy Solutions

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11. Jatropha Curcas: A Solution for a Sustainable Energy Supply?

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pp. 265-271

Jatropha is a plant that has yet to be domesticated but that has great potential to be a sustainable source of energy. Its productivity however, is highly unpredictable and variable. Better knowledge of its biodiversity, the continuous breeding for better varieties, and the production and distribution of uniform and superior planting materials ...

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12. Singapore’s Solar Challenge

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pp. 272-292

Being rich in resources seems to breed complacency and suppress the urge for progress. What countries like Singapore have to rely on instead is human ingenuity — it is our key resource and our main competitive advantage. We turned the threat of water shortage to our advantage, using it to spur innovation and set the goal of self-sufficiency in water. ...

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13. Sustainable Mobility for Singapore

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pp. 293-312

Automotive technology, transportation-related infrastructure, and liquid transport fuels are experiencing the largest transformation since the development of the internal combustion engine. Singapore, as a clean-tech hub and garden city, is well positioned for this change in transportation and the move towards sustainable mobility. ...


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pp. 313-329

E-ISBN-13: 9789814279291
Print-ISBN-13: 9789814279284

Page Count: 329
Publication Year: 2010

Edition: 1