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The Indian National Army and Japan

Joyce C Lebra

Publication Year: 2008

This study traces the origins of the Indian National Army in the imagination of Iwaichi Fujiwara, a young Japanese intelligence officer, and the relationship between the Imperial Japanese Army and the Indian National Army as it evolved under the leadership of Bengali revolutionary, Subhas Chandra Bose. The study is unique in its use of Japanese archival sources for analysis of the relationship between Japanese policy formulation and the Indian independence movement in its military phase.

Published by: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute

Title Page, Copyright Page

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Illustrations and Maps

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pp. vii

This is a reprint of Jungle Alliance: Japan and the Indian National Army, which was originally published in 1971 by Donald Moore for Asia/Pacific Press. It has long since been out of print and is unavailable. It covers the beginnings of the Indian National Army, as part of a Japanese military intelligence operation under Major Iwaichi Fujiwara, and moves forward ...

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pp. viii

IT is a quarter of a century ago that Japanese armed forces left Southeast Asia, yet even now our knowledge about the occupation years can be likened to a jigsaw puzzle in which far too many pieces are still missing. Happily, the number of researchers devoting themselves to the study of wartime Southeast Asia is increasing. More ...

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pp. xi

In the decades intervening between the publication of the first edition of this book in 1971 (Jungle Alliance: Japan and the Indian National Army, Singapore: Asia/Pacific Press) and this present edition, the outpouring of volumes on Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army has continued. None of these studies in English focuses on the ...

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pp. xii

FOR financial support of the research for this study I am indebted to a Fulbright grant to India (1965-6), and to a University of Colorado Grant-in-Aid (summer 1964 and 1968) for support of travel to Tokyo. Libraries which made their facilities available to me are: in India the Netaji Research Bureau, Calcutta; the Indian School of International Studies ...

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pp. xiii-xvi

FOR over two decades following the end of World War II, Japan’s goals and tactics in wartime Greater East Asia have remained buried in government and military archives and in the memories of wartime leaders still living. The image, fostered through the proceedings of the International Military Tribunal in Tokyo, of Japan as one ...

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1. Mission to Bangkok

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pp. 1-15

1 OCTOBER 1941 was a hot, muggy day in Thailand. A young Japanese major stepped from a Douglas Dakota and was momentarily blinded by the rays of the Bangkok sun. He was tense and, in his nervousness, felt certain the eyes of the airport employees were fixed on him—curious about the nature of his mission. His shirt had wilted in the humidity, and he ...

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2. Malayan Jungle Meeting

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pp. 16-33

IN 1941 Mohan Singh was a captain,1 aged thirty-three, second in command of a battalion of the 15th Brigade, 1/14 Punjab Regiment of the British-Indian Army. Like many Indian officers, Mohan Singh felt a mixture of pride at being a viceroy commissioned officer and annoyance at British discrimination against Indian officers. In March ...

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3. Singapore Capitulates and the INA Blossoms

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pp. 34-42

IN 1824 Sir Stamford Raffles succeeded in effecting the transfer of the island of Singapore to the British East India Company. From that time on Singapore became the bastion of British domination of Asia. Fortification of the island had not been restricted by the Washington Naval Conference quotas of 1921-2, and Britain had subsequently spent ...

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4. Tokyo Conference

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pp. 43-59

ON 10 March 1942 two planes left the Bangkok airport for Tokyo. Aboard one were Fujiwara, Colonel Iwakuro, Mohan Singh, Lieutenant- Colonel Gill, N. Raghavan, S.C. Goho, and K.P.K. Menon. Fujiwara felt Headquarters had singled out Colonel Iwakuro to succeed him in the expanded and reorganized Kikan. Iwakuro had ...

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5. Japanese Policy toward India

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pp. 60-74

JAPAN’S wartime aims in India were never as clearly defined as her aims in Southeast Asia. India was not embraced in the grand design for the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere first conceived in 1940. Greater East Asia would sweep through Southeast Asia westward to the Indo-Burmese border. Everywhere in Asia Western colonial rule would be ...

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6. The Crisis of the First INA

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pp. 75-101

ON 15 June 1942 over a hundred delegates of the Indian Independence League all over Asia assembled in Bangkok, as had been agreed at the Sanno Conference in Tokyo. Representatives of the two million Indians in East Asia came from Malaya, Burma, Thailand, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines, Japan, Manchukuo, Nanking, ...

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7. Subhas Chandra Bose, Hitler, and Tojo

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pp. 102-127

ON 23 January 1897 at Cuttack, Orissa, was born Subhas Chandra Bose, ninth child of Janakinath and Prabhavati Bose. Janakinath was a lawyer of a Kayastha family, and was wealthy enough to educate all his children well. By Indian standards this family of Bengali origin was well-to-do. Janakinath was raised in the atmosphere of ...

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8. Bose, the FIPG, and the Hikari Kikan

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pp. 128-148

THE next step for Bose in Southeast Asia was the creation of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind. The Japanese had been reluctant to recognize the INA as an allied army, since it represented not a government but an organization, the IIL. The remedy, then, was to establish a government which could deal diplomatically on ...

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9. To India or Not?

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pp. 149-173

The Imphal campaign in India became the vortex of all the forces in the Indo-Japanese co-operation: the impact of the charismatic personality of Bose on IGHQ Tokyo, the problem of delineating Japan’s policy aims toward India, Japan’s logistics and military dilemma in Burma, differences over military protocol and command ...

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10. The Rising Sun Unfurls; the Tiger Springs

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pp. 174-193

ON 7 January 1944, IGHQ Army Directive no. 1776 was issued to the Southern Army “to capture strategic areas near Imphal and in north-eastern India, for the defence of Burma”. One of Mutaguchi’s divisions, the 15th, was late in arriving, and the launching of the offensive was postponed until March.1 On 8 March all divisions were ...

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11. A Plane Crash

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pp. 194-199

BOSE and his INA party arrived at Moulmein by car on 1 May. Bose’s plan was to move the FIPG and INA headquarters to Bangkok. He wanted to see General Kimura of the BAA, whose headquarters was temporarily at Moulmein, but was refused on grounds of security precautions. Bose then endeavoured through Isoda to arrange rail ...

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12. A Trial in the Red Fort

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pp. 200-209

After the war INA officers and men in Southeast Asia were repatriated to India. An organization called the British Combined Services Detailed Interrogation Centre interrogated the returned prisoners in the Red Fort. The fort had an illustrious history. It had been the seat of Mogul rule and the focal point of fighting toward ...

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13. Retrospect

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pp. 210-219

INDIA was an intriguing problem for Japan on the verge of war in Southeast Asia. The tentacles of the British empire were athwart most of the sea routes in Southeast Asia, and the British-Dutch- American military and economic agreements in the Indies had created a blockade which Japan had to break through to reach vital sources ...


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pp. 220-236

Bibliographical Note

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pp. 237-238


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pp. 239-245


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pp. 246-255

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About the Author

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pp. 256-257

Joyce Chapman Lebra received her B.A. and M.A. in Asian Studies from the University of Minnesota and her Ph.D. in Japanese History from Harvard/Radcliffe. She is the first woman Ph.D. holder in Japanese History in the U.S. She was Professor of Japanese History and Indian History at the University of Colorado until her retirement. ...

E-ISBN-13: 9789812308078
Print-ISBN-13: 9789812308061

Page Count: 257
Publication Year: 2008

Edition: 1

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Subject Headings

  • Indian National Army -- History.
  • World War, 1939-1945 -- India.
  • World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan.
  • India -- Relations -- Japan.
  • Japan -- Relations -- India.
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