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Asian Security Reassessed

Stephen Hoadley and Jurgen Ruland

Publication Year: 2006

This book traces changes in the concept of security in Asia from realist to cooperative, comprehensive, and human security approaches, and assesses a number of policy alternatives to management of both old and new security threats. It surveys not only orthodox security threats such as tensions between regional powers or armed ethnic antagonists but also new sources of anxiety such as resource scarcity, economic instability, irregular migration, community fragmentation, and international terrorism. Security policies of major powers such as China, Japan, and the United States, and the moderating roles of regional organizations such as ASEAN, ARF, SCO, and KEDO are evaluated in historical and contemporary perspectives. Contributors proffer policy-relevant insights where appropriate. The book concludes that traditional security approaches remain valid but need to be adapted to the new challenges, and offers suggestions for incorporating fresh Asian security perceptions into the agendas of policy-makers, analysts, and scholars.

Published by: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute

Title Page, Copyright Page

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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pp. vii-viii

Given the dispersed home bases of the editors, authors, and publisher, the publication of this book is a triumph of global communication over physical separation. Nor has the diversity of the authors’ academic backgrounds and analytical approaches prevented a satisfying degree of...

About the Contributors

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pp. ix-xii

List of Abbreviations

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pp. xiii-xvi

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pp. xvii

Thousands of books have been written on how to achieve security. But the victims of insecurity since World War II have numbered in the tens of millions, nearly half of them in Asia, caught in armed conflicts and attendant famine or disease, and the damage has cost trillions of dollars....

Part I: Approaches to Asian Security

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1. The Evolution of Security Thinking: An Overview

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pp. 3-33

Few topics can be more important to more people than security, not least in Asia. Unfortunately for those who live there, Asia has been one of the world’s most belligerent regions since the end of World War II. Of the approximately two hundred armed conflicts registered between 1945 and...

Part II: Security Management by Asian States and Regional Institutions

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2. Asia from Colonialism to Culturalism

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pp. 37-65

This chapter builds on the observation that the past leaves a legacy, and that that legacy will influence contemporary security perceptions and security policies. This theme is always implicit, and often explicit, in the chapters that follow, for which this chapter serves as a historical introduction....

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3. Japan and East Asian Regional Security

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pp. 66-85

This chapter examines Japan’s changing regional security context at the start of the twenty-first century. Japan’s own approach to security issues throughout the post-war period has been simultaneously constrained by particular domestic forces and buffeted by international pressures. Forced...

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4. China’s Security Strategy and Policies

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pp. 86-105

The past decade or so has witnessed a dramatic change of China’s security perceptions, which is rooted in the sea change of the international system and China’s opening up. While the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War provided a peaceful international environment...

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5. United States Security Policies in Asia

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pp. 106-127

The United States was a Pacific power long before it became an Atlantic one. In the early 1840s the United States intensified its commercial engagement in East Asia. Under the terms of the Treaty of Wanghia (1844), America gained the right to trade in Chinese ports. More decisively,...

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6. Regional Security Institutions: ASEAN, ARF, SCO and KEDO

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pp. 128-167

This chapter discusses East Asia’s cooperative security arrangements and regional organizations insofar as they seek to make a contribution to regional security.1 The chapter will focus on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the Shanghai...

Part III: Non-Traditional Challenges to Asian Security

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7. Weapons Proliferation in Asia

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pp. 171-186

Any reassessment of the changing Asian security environment must allow considerable space for the large, unresolved issues of earlier years. Despite the rush of new issues onto the Asian security agenda, at the core of many regional security problems still lies a continuing worry about an old issue:...

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8. Conflicts over Natural Resources and the Environment

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pp. 187-210

The need for natural resources has given rise to conflicts in many parts of the world.1 As the World Commission on Environment and Development points out, “nations have often fought to assert or resist control over war materials, energy supplies, land, river basins, sea passages and other key...

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9. Ethnic Conflict, Separatism and Terrorism

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pp. 211-250

Politicized ethnicity “has become the most keen and potent edge of intrastate and inter-state conflict displacing class and ideological conflict, and it asserts itself today, dialectically, as the leading legitimator or delegitimating challenger of political authority”.1 This statement is as valid today as when...

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10. Irregular Migration as a Security Issue

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pp. 251-269

Migration has long been a security-policy concern to Asian governments. But during the Cold War it was discounted by realist theorists as a social or economic problem, and thus relegated to “low politics”, in contrast to the “high politics” of defence and diplomacy.1 The rise to prominence of...

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11. Globalization and Asian Financial Insecurity

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pp. 270-290

In the past decade we have witnessed a number of financial crises in Asia and elsewhere. None was predicted but all imposed great economic and social costs on the countries involved directly or indirectly in the crises. The stability of states and the security of their inhabitants were jeopardized....

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12. Challenges to Human Rights and Civil Liberties

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pp. 291-308

Within the framework of human security sketched in the introductory chapters of this book, this chapter describes and assesses security threats at the interface between the state and the individual in Asia. Post-independence Asian security policy has focused on internal security, that is, the...

Part IV: New Concepts of Asian Security

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13. Asian Security as a Global Public Good

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pp. 311-324

Asia is beset by security dilemmas.1 These dilemmas have their origins in the collective memories of Asian societies, and were sharpened by colonial experience and intensified by interaction patterns of the Cold War period. These pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial experiences still...

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14. Communities and Security in Pacific Asia

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pp. 325-345

Political and scientific discourses about security in Pacific Asia1 refer most often to political and institutional factors. As a rule these focus on questions of public security or — more often — of military threats coming from outside the state. However, public security and domestic security are...

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15. Traditionalism and Change in the Asian Security Discourse

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pp. 346-367

The chapters of this book have shown that the Asian security discourse is in flux. The negative impact of the energy crisis and the positive encouragement of détente in the 1970s, have shifted security thinking from a focus on military power of states to a more comprehensive conception of...


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pp. 369-381

E-ISBN-13: 9789812307101
Print-ISBN-13: 9789812304001

Page Count: 381
Publication Year: 2006

Edition: 1