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Islam in Southeast Asia

Political, Social and Strategic Challenges for the 21st Century

K S Nathan and Mohammad Hashim Kamali

Publication Year: 2005

This book looks at Islam and its strategic implications for Southeast Asia. Part I outlines Islamic doctrine and traces the history and growth of Islamic economic institutions in the region. In Part II, politics, governance, civil society and gender issues are examined in the context of Southeast Asian Islam. Part III devotes itself to the impact of modernization and globalization on Muslim society. Part IV examines and evaluates the impact of the 2001 terrorist attacks on the icons of the American superpower. The Conclusion offers some perspectives on the challenges and prospects for Islamic doctrine and practice in the context of Southeast Asia.

Published by: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies

Front Matter

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Contents

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pp. v-vii

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PREFACE

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pp. ix-x

This book is a revised version of the proceedings of the Conference on “Islam in Southeast Asia: Political, Social, and Strategic Challenges for the 21st Century” held at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore on 2–3 September 2002. To the extent possible, all chapters have been revised and updated to include...

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INTRODUCTION: Understanding Political Islam Post-September 11

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pp. xi-xxiii

The process of globalization has taken us out of isolation and brought us into a truly new phase of human co-existence which, for the present, is unsettled and dangerous. Globalization initially promised to be a vehicle for promotion of human development and democracy addressing issues like freedom and opportunities for progress. However...

PART ONE: Islamic Doctrine, History, Growth and Institutions in Southeast Asia

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1. ISLAMIC THOUGHT: THEORY, CONCEPTS AND DOCTRINES IN THE CONTEXT OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN ISLAM

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pp. 3-21

There is little doubt that Islamic thought is very complex. The complexity of Islamic thought is even greater in philosophical, dogmatic, theoretical, and conceptual aspects especially if one puts it in the context of recent international developments such as the 11 September 2001 terrorist attack in the United States. The complexity...

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2. THE HISTORY OF ISLAM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: SOME QUESTIONS AND DEBATES

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pp. 22-44

Islam probably reached Southeast Asia in the very first century of the Islamic era. Although this early period may be considered as the starting point of the Islamization process, the most recent events have shown that its end has yet to come. Many theories have been offered on the origin and development of Islam in this region. Any approach...

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3. THE ADVENT AND GROWTH OF ISLAM IN THE PHILIPPINES

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pp. 45-63

The National Geographic Magazine in its September 1980 issue1 published a map which showed the different countries with significant Muslim populations. A glance at this map reveals that Muslim communities pioneered by the Islamic expansion that began in the seventh century have largely remained and in many...

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4. ISLAMIC ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS IN INDONESIA: A RELIGIO-POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE

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pp. 64-81

In 1991, an Islamic bank, Bank Muamalat Indonesia (BMI), was founded in Indonesia. In a way, this was a historical landmark considering the fact that the long-overdue project had finally materialized. Muslims in Indonesia had been aspiring to the creation of such an important financial institution since the 1970s. For many of them...

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5. THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT OF ISLAMIC ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS: THE MALAYSIAN EXPERIENCE

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pp. 82-99

The need for development programmes after political independence and the perceived failures of both the capitalist and socialist models provided a fresh opportunity for Muslim nations to seek “indigenous solutions” to their socioeconomic problems. The main focus is on events in the last twenty-five years where actual policy documents...

PART TWO: Politics, Governance, Civil Society and Gender Issues in Southeast Asian Islam

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6. ISLAM EMBEDDED: ‘MODERATE’ POLITICAL ISLAM AND GOVERNANCE IN THE MALAY WORLD

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pp. 103-120

The “Malay world” is a riverine-maritime complex of contemporary Southeast Asia, a geo-body often compared to the Mediterranean because of their many similarities, especially, as historical and civilizational “sites” where many great world civilizations, both from the East and West, interacted and cross-fertilized. Physically, the Malay...

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7. LAW-MAKING IN THE NAME OF ISLAM: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE

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pp. 121-134

The rise of political Islam in countries throughout the Muslim world has posed particular challenges to democratic principles of governance, human rights and women’s rights.Most Muslim states are in crisis today, politically, economically, socially. Many remain under authoritarian rule of well-entrenched monarchs...

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8. IS IT ALWAYS ISLAM VERSUS CIVIL SOCIETY?

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pp. 135-161

This chapter will explore the issue of whether Islam — especially the agendas of political Islam — is antithetical to the democracy that defines a Civil Society. Among the many vital aspects one could explore in terms of civil society and Islam, I am choosing to address a core element of concern in Southeast Asia...

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9. ISLAMIZATION, CIVIL SOCIETY, AND RELIGIOUS MINORITIES IN MALAYSIA

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pp. 162-190

The last three decades of the twentieth century witnessed a fundamental shift in Islamic politics in Malaysia. Islamic resurgence throughout society produced a discernible response at the level of the state directed towards conscious and concerted Islamization through the organs of state. This went hand in hand with a power struggle...

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10. ISLAM AND GENDER: READING EQUALITY AND PATRIARCHY

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pp. 191-205

The above remark is cited by Annemarie Schimmel in her foreword to The Tao of Islam (Murata 1992, vii). Winternitz’s observation is particularly evident when put in the context of Islam, as Schimmel contends that “it is certainly easier to look only at the surface … of polygamy and easy divorce and … purdah … than...

PART THREE: Modernization, Globalization and the ‘Islamic State’ Debate in Southeast Asia

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11. ISLAM AND MODERNIZATION

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pp. 209-230

Modernity refers to the end result of the process of modernization. It is the condition that a society attains after having gone through specific patterns of social and economic change which began in Western Europe in the eighteenth century and which has been spreading throughout the rest of the world. The process of modernization...

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12. MODERNIZATION AND THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION: THE MUSLIM EXPERIENCE AND RESPONSES

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pp. 231-255

This chapter analyzes Muslim responses to the various challenges and opportunities associated with modernization, and processes of globalization. These two processes have aroused anxiety, suspicion, and opposition, especially in the Muslim world. Muslims regard modernity and globalism as a Western, particularly...

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13. THE MALAYSIAN CONSTITUTION, THE ISLAMIC STATE AND HUDUD LAWS

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pp. 256-277

Malaysia has a record of racial, cultural and religious tolerance that should be the envy of all plural societies. Mosques, temples, churches and gurdwaras dot the landscape. Citizens celebrate each others’ religious festivals. Unlike in some other democracies where religious/communal riots erupt with painful regularity and where...

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14. THE ISLAMIC STATE: ORIGINS, DEFINITION AND SALIENT ATTRIBUTES

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pp. 278-297

This chapter begins with an introductory section which sets out some of the uncertainties concerning the concept and definition of an Islamic state, a brief history of developments, and a literature review. The remaining part of the discussion focuses on the salient attributes of an Islamic state: whether the Islamic state proposes...

PART FOUR: Impact of September 11 on Islamic Thought and Practice

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15. SEPTEMBER 11 AND ISLAMIC MILITANCY IN POST-NEW ORDER INDONESIA

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pp. 301-324

On 11 September 2001, a tragedy occurred in the United States. Three jetliners hijacked by terrorists struck the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon, the principal symbols of American hegemony. Another hijacked jetliner tried to crash into the White House but failed, and plummeted into an open field in Pennsylvania. Within...

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16. THE IMPACT OF SEPTEMBER 11 ON ISLAM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

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pp. 325-345

Mahatma Gandhi was reputedly asked what he thought about the impact of the French Revolution. With characteristic modesty he replied, “It’s too soon to tell.” Certainly it is far too soon to tell what will be the impact on Southeast Asian Islam of the September 11 attack on New York and Washington. Indeed...

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CONCLUSION: Addressing the Challenge of Political Islam in Southeast Asia

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pp. 347-353

Political Islam as an issue affecting our present and future, will remain a matter of great concern to Muslims as well as non-Muslims in this region, and the world as well. Parts I and II have highlighted the complexity involved, and the problematique associated with translating theory and doctrine to reality. Indeed, this is...

NOTE ON CONTRIBUTORS

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pp. 355-361

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ABOUT THE EDITORS

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pp. 362-

K.S. Nathan is currently a Senior Fellow at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. He holds a B.A. Hons. (Second Class Upper) in History, from the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur (1971); Ph.D. in International Relations from Claremont Graduate University in California, USA (1975); LL.B. Hons. (Second...

INDEX

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pp. 363-381


E-ISBN-13: 9789812306241
Print-ISBN-13: 9789812302830

Page Count: 362
Publication Year: 2005

Edition: 1

Research Areas

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Subject Headings

  • Islam -- Southeast Asia -- History -- Congresses.
  • Islam -- 21st century -- Congresses.
  • Islam and state -- Southeast Asia -- Congresses.
  • Islam and politics -- Southeast Asia -- Congresses.
  • Terrorism -- Religious aspects -- Islam -- Congresses.
  • September 11 Terrorist Attacks, 2001 -- Influence -- Congresses.
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