The Asia-Pacific Security Lexicon (Upated 2nd Edition)
Publication Year: 2007
Published by: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute
Title Page, Copyright
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Table of Contents
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List of Abbreviations
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Introduction to the Second Edition
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A Singaporean academic once described the first edition of the Lexicon as “words from East Asian talk shops”. He may well be right. The book treats words seriously and, to paraphrase T.S. Eliot, continues to focus on their refusal to remain still. The first edition of the Asia-Pacific Security Lexicon was completed in late 2001 and appeared in 2002. ...
AD HOC MULTILATERALISM
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Multilateralism created for “a particular or specific purpose.”1 Sometimes also called “single-issue multilateralism”, the term was used by Robert Scalapino to describe collaborative mechanisms developed to deal with specific security problems in Eastern Asia prior to the existence of a functioning regional security...
A LA CARTE MULTILATERALISM
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A la carte suggests the idea of picking and choosing. The term a la carte multilateralism was coined by Richard Haass, Director of Policy Planning in the U.S. State Department from 2001 to 2003. In a speech in July 2001, Haass told a Washington think-tank that “what you’re going to get from [the George W. Bush]...
THE “ASEAN WAY”
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A style of diplomacy or code of conduct that has evolved in intra- ASEAN relations.1 It has been brought into regional institutions such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation forum (APEC) by virtue of ASEAN’s special role within them. Also presented in parallel formulations...
BALANCE OF POWER
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According to Kenneth Waltz, “if there is any distinctively political theory of international politics, balance of power theory is it.”1 While the idea of the balance of power is often taken for granted in writings on security, it has always been a hotly contested and controversial notion. It is seen by some as being akin to “a law of...
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The adjective bilateral is usually used to describe a relationship, event, or institution involving just two parties. It can be contrasted with multilateralism, which usually refers to a situation involving three or more actors. In this sense, bilateralism grows out of a belief that inter-state relations are best organized on a one-on-one...
COALITION OF THE WILLING
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A group of states that cooperate in an ad hoc or informal fashion, outside of more formal multilateral institutions and alliances. The term has been used recently to describe the group of countries supporting the 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, but its origins predate the George W. Bush administration. While the term usually refers...
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Describes the use of limited force or the threat of force to achieve a specified diplomatic outcome. According to Sumit Ganguly and Michael Kraig, “the essential distinguishing feature of [coercive diplomacy] (and possibly its only consistent feature) is that it involves the threat of the use of force or the limited use of...
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Sometimes called “collective self-defence”. Historically one of the most important elements of states’ national security policies, second only to “self-help”. The concept refers to the practice where states agree to collaborate to ward off a threat from an identified enemy (whether actual or potential). This collaboration is usually in the...
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Came to prominence during and immediately after World War I, partly as a reaction against the perceived failings of the balance of power system. The concept’s best-known early advocate was Woodrow Wilson. Appalled by the outbreak of war in Europe, Wilson decided by the end of 1914 that nations must be...
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Conceived in its contemporary usage in Cold War Europe, it was first formulated in the 1982 report of the Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues, chaired by the late Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme.1 Egon Bahr, a West German member of the Commission and a former adviser to Willy Brandt, has...
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One of the most widely used security concepts in the Asia-Pacific region. According to Muthiah Alagappa, the term was first formally coined in Japan during the Ohira Administration in the 1970s. It has also been widely used by several governments in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.1 ...
CONCERT OF POWERS
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Concerts bring together a small group of major powers in order to regulate relations among themselves, to promote norms of cooperation, and to prevent conflicts between smaller states from provoking a larger war. Rosecrance and Schott describe a concert as a “club or group of powers that agree collectively to...
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According to Yoichi Funabashi, the term concerted unilateral action (CUA) emerged from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) where he says it had the pejorative connotation of “big boys doing what they want to do”.1 Its meaning in the Asia-Pacific security discourse is quite different. The term was us...
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The formal concept, most frequently known by its acronym (CBM), was first put forward in January 1973 in proposals by Belgium and Italy at the Helsinki preparatory consultations to establish an agenda for the Conference on Security Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). After prolonged discussions and much disagreement, the...
CONFIDENCE- AND SECURITYBUILDINGMEASURES
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While there is widespread agreement that the aim of confidenceand security-building measures (CSBMs) is to reduce uncertainty, misperception, and suspicion, and thus help lessen the possibility of armed conflict, there is no commonly accepted definition of what constitutes a confidence- and security-building measure. ...
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Following the violent disintegration of the coalition government in Cambodia in July 1997, the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia Anwar Ibrahim called on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to play a more proactive role in solving the region’s security problems.1 In an article published in Newsweek...
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Of the security concepts in use in Asia-Pacific security discourse, this is one of the most popular and ambiguous. While the origins of the concept are unclear and the term is used in very different ways around the region, this has not stopped numerous scholars and various government officials from claiming to have coined...
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According to the Oxford Concise Dictionary, the noun engagement and the verb to engage have several different meanings. Among these, to engage can mean “to employ busily”, “to hold a person’s attention”, “to bind by a promise (usually a marriage)”, or to “come into battle with an enemy”. The noun engagement can mean...
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A central tenet of the “ASEAN way” or the Asia-Pacific approach to multilateralism. Flexible consensus does not require unanimity on the part of all the members of an organization. According to some accounts, the term was introduced by the former Indonesian President Suharto at the 1994 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation...
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Since the end of the Cold War, there have been numerous attempts to redefine and re-focus the concept of security. Perhaps the most controversial and complex is the idea of human security. Though operating at the margins of security discourse and practice it has produced an intense debate on a global basis but also within and...
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The idea that in certain circumstances it is permissible under international law for a state or states to use military force to intervene in another state’s territory, in order to prevent a humanitarian disaster from taking place, even without the permission of the government of that state. While the idea has...
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There is no single definition of what constitutes a middle power. Adam Chapnik argues that “for all its importance, [the term] ‘middle power’ is rarely defined and limited explanations are never specific.”1 According to a major work on the subject, there are at least four distinct approaches to defining a middle power.2 ...
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Definitions fall into two different categories. In the first, and most common diplomatic usage, multilateralism refers to “the practice of coordinating national policies in groups of three or more states through ad hoc arrangements or by means of institutions”.1 It is a nominal, or quantitative description referring simply to cooperation...
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Its origins lie in the Cold War confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. In the late 1980s, scholars and officials from both superpowers came together to form several working groups on the topic and in 1990, they published a joint study entitled Mutual Security: A New Approach to Soviet-American Relations.1 ...
NEW SECURITY APPROACH
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Also known as new security concept, the term is the product of an evolving process of thinking about security concepts in China.1 The essence of the concept is the idea that security is indivisible and that states must work cooperatively to reduce threats. Specifically, it stresses the need to resolve territorial and border...
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Similar to the concepts of comprehensive security, cooperative security and human security, non-traditional security emphasizes threats to security of states and individuals that extend beyond ”traditional” military threats to the territorial integrity of the state. As with the broader concept of human security, there is a very...
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One of the earliest principles agreed upon for the founding of an Asia-Pacific community. The term’s origins trace back to discussions about regional economic co-operation in the late 1970s. It became more prominent when it was cited as an ideal for the future economic development of the region by the first Pacific...
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Term apparently coined by Zheng Bijian, the chairman of the Beijing-based think-tank the China Reform Forum.1 It was originally conceived in late 2002, “as an attempt to answer Western proponents of the ‘China threat theory’ ”.2 He intended to show that “unlike past rising powers, which upset the international...
PRE-EMPTION ANDPREVENTIVE WAR
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On 1 June 2002, President George W. Bush delivered one of the most remarked upon speeches of the first term of his presidency. Speaking to new graduates at the West Point military academy in New York, he announced what he would later call a “new doctrine” underpinning U.S. national security policy.1 While containment...
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Coined by the second Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dag Hammarskold, in 1960. According to Simon Tay, the concept is based on public international law, in particular the United Nations’ goal to “take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to peace” set out in Article 1 of...
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Initially developed by Karl Deutsch and his co-authors in their 1957 study Political Community and the North Atlantic Area.1 Put most simply, a security community exists when a group of states have forged a sense of community or collective identity, meaning they will settle their differences without resorting to force. ...
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Terrorism is now one of the most frequently used terms in the contemporary Asia-Pacific security discourse. It is also strongly contested, with little international consensus on what constitutes either an act of terrorism or a terrorist group. It is clear that terrorism involves some sort of violent activity, but what kind of...
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Refers to the official governmental channel for political and security dialogue in the region. Participants in Track One meetings attend as representatives of their respective governments. Discussions, though often informal in terms of style or setting, are assumed to be official statements of national policy. In East Asia and the Asia- Pacific...
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A term coined by Paul Dibb, then head of the Strategic and Defence Studies Centre (SDSC) at the Australian National University in Canberra. It was originally used in the context of a seminar sanctioned by the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) on regional confidence-building that took place in Canberra in November 1994. ...
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According to Louise Diamond and John McDonald, the term was invented in 1982 by Joseph Montville of the Foreign Service Institute to describe “methods of diplomacy that were outside the formal governmental system”.1 According to their definition, Track Two refers to the “non-governmental, informal and unofficial...
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The term suggests a natural link with Tracks-One and -Two, but the relationship between them is more complex than the terminology implies. Generally speaking, Track-Three refers to the activities and meetings of groups such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), transnational networks, and advocacy...
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Used in both security and economic discourse in the region. In the security discourse, transparency is associated with confidenceand security-building measures. Transparency assumes that openness on military matters encourages trust between states and reduces the suspicions that can lead to miscalculation and conflict. ...
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Refers to a concept closely related to the family of confidence- and security-building measures. While TBMs is not a new term — in fact it was used as long ago as the Camp David process in the Middle East — some scholars have suggested they offer a “more indigenous” Asia-Pacific alternative to confidence-building...
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
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Page Count: 248
Publication Year: 2007