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Between Educationalization and Appropriation

Selected Writings on the History of Modern Educational Systems

Marc Depaepe

Publication Year: 2012

Advanced reader on the history of education Developments in educational systems worldwide have largely contributed to the modernization and globalization of present-day society. However, in order to fully understand their impact, educational systems must be interpreted against a background of particular situations and contexts. This textbook brings together more than twenty (collaborative) contributions focusing on the two key themes in the work of Marc Depaepe: educationalization and appropriation. Compiled for his international master classes, these selected writings provide not only a thorough introduction to the history of modern educational systems, but also a twenty-five year overview of the work of a well-known pioneer in the field of history of education. Covering the modernization of schooling in Western history, the characteristics and origins of educationalization, the colonial experience in education and the process of appropriation, Between Educationalization and Appropriation will be of great interest to a larger audience of scholars in the social sciences.

Published by: Leuven University Press

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 1-4

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pp. 5-10

Having a colleague and friend ask one to write a foreword for his scholarly book is a great honour. I have known Professor Marc Depaepe for many years: in the beginning at quite a distance, since he was one of the select company of star research professors appointed permanently through the Flemish Fund for Scientific Research in Belgium. ...

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pp. 11-16

As is explained in the Foreword by the former Rector of the KU Leuven, for which I am, of course, very grateful, this book has been published for mainly two reasons: a scientific and an educational one. A scientific one, because it gives a state of the art of my research and an educational one, because it can be used for teaching purposes ...


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pp. 17-20

I. Starting from the Belgian Case – from Schooling to Educationalization

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pp. 21-22

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1. The School, Cornerstone of Modern Society

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pp. 23-34

It is not easy, within the limited space of this introduction, to paint a sufficiently finely-differentiated picture of the story of education. Nevertheless, we shall venture to do that in the guidebook for this museum. The idea we should like to emphasize is the central role played by the school in the modernisation of society. ...

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2. The Conquest of Youth: an Educational Crusade in Flanders during the Interbellum Period

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pp. 35-60

In Europe between the two World Wars, youth constituted a notable arena for the manifestation of social polarizations. From the 1920s on, the political scene shifted markedly to the right: theories of the New Order proclaimed the failure of parliamentary democracy, and in Italy Fascism (Mussolini in 1922) and in Germany Nazism (Hitler in 1933) ...

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3. The Feminization of the Teaching Profession in Belgium in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

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pp. 61-88

In the prologue to John L. Rury’s book, Education and Women’s Work. Female Schooling and the Division of Labor in Urban America, 1870–1930, published in 1991, Barbara Finkelstein writes: “The history of education is not rich in studies that combine an effusion of quantitative data, with equal portions of narrative elegance, ...

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4. The Sacralization of Childhood in a Secularized World: Another Paradox in the History of Education? An Exploration of the Problem on the Basis of the Open-Air School Diesterweg in Heide-Kalmthout

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pp. 89-118

The long list of questions issued by the organizers of this seminar is, we assume, primarily heuristic in intent. Rather than formulating a response to them all, therefore, we have concentrated on a single theme. It takes its relevance from the point of view of the discipline in which we as researchers have profiled ourselves, namely educational historiography. ...

II. About the Educationalization…of the West

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pp. 119-120

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5. Educationalisation: A Key Concept in Understanding the Basic Processes in the History of Western Education

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pp. 121-138

Long before there was talk of any ‘postmodernism’ in philosophy or in historiography, the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), with this citation from his Genealogy of Morality,1 pointed out that our perception of things – and thus also of the past – has always been colored by our perspective. ...

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6. Dealing with Paradoxes of Educationalization: Beyond the Limits of “New” Cultural History of Education?

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pp. 139-166

Every scientific discipline – including the history of education – is continuously subject to change. This truism applies both to the knowledge generated within a particular field of research and to its didactic translation into a teaching subject. When the subject of histoire de la pédagogie entered the curriculum of Belgian university teacher training in 1890, ...

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7. Educationalization as an Ongoing Modernization Process

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pp. 167-176

In several Western societies we witness today an increasing tendency to “educationalize” social problems. As an institution, the school is, among other things, held accountable for solving social inequalities (related to class, race, and gender); for reducing traffic deaths, obesity, teenage sex, and environmental destruction; ...

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8. About Pedagogization: From the Perspective of the History of Education

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pp. 177-198

For history researchers, it is not a needless luxury to consider from time to time the content and the significance of the basic concepts they use, certainly if they have the ambition to interpret and/or explain history in addition to purely describing it. This self-reflection, compelled by the annually recurring dialogue with educational philosophers ...

III. The Colonial Context – From Educationalization to Appropriation?

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pp. 199-200

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9. Belgian Images of the Psycho-Pedagogical Potential of the Congolese during the Colonial Era, 1908–1960

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pp. 201-222

With these words in 1995, I rounded off the opening of the fifteenth ISCHE conference, which had been organised in Lisbon on the colonial experience in education. Nevertheless, it was another 12 years before this theme would again appear on the international forum of the history of education. ...

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10. Sometimes a Little Distance is Needed to See What Really Happened: The Study of the Belgian Educational Policy in Congo as an Example of the Critical Vigour of Colonial History of Education

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pp. 223-240

One of Jürgen Oelkers’ many merits is to have studied – as a generalist – the complex relationship between pedagogy, politics and practice in great detail, especially in relation to ›reform pedagogy‹ (or New Education) and its potential contribution to educational innovations (see, e.g., Oelkers 1991; Oelkers/Osterwalder 1999; Oelkers3 1996). ...

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11. ‘Rien ne va plus …’ The Collapse of the Colonial Educational Structures in Zaïre (1960-1995)

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pp. 241-264

In a previous study the author and his co-author compared the educational project in the Belgian Congo (1908-1960) with a runaway locomotive that, in spite of all the good intentions, drove to self-destruction (Depaepe & Van Rompaey, 1995:225). What did we intend by use of this image taken from Emile Zola’s novel La bête humaine (1890)? ...

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12. How to Research Intercultural Hybridity of the Congolese Elite Through Education During the Postcolonial Era (1960-1997)?

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pp. 265-280

Recently, we have made at our university an application for a new research project. Although it is at the moment still uncertain whether we will have the money to carry out this research or not, we nevertheless do think that it can be helpful to share the content of our project with others, in view of fostering further research in this area.1 ...

IV. Appropriation Processes in Theory and Praxis

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pp. 281-282

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13. How Darwinism Has Affected Catholic as Well as Non-Catholic Psycho-Pedagogical Constructs in Belgium from the 1870s to the 1930s

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pp. 283-302

Two paragraphs before the end of his magnum opus, On the Origin of Species,1 Charles Darwin predicted, on the basis of his findings as regards natural selection, a brilliant future for barely explored terrains in the study of man: “Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. ...

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14. The Canonization of Ovide Decroly as a “Saint” of the New Education

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pp. 303-330

If any Belgian educator belongs to the canon of the New Education, it is certainly Ovide Decroly (1871-1932). Particularly in southern Europe and in many Latin American countries,1 the ideas and the work of this French-speaking Brussels doctor have been inspirational for a movement that projected itself worldwide— ...

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15. Modern Architecture Meets New Education: Renaat Braem’s Design and the Brussels Decroly School (1946)

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pp. 331-358

A number of ambitious and innovational plans were sketched in the course of the twentieth century for L’École Decroly l’Ermitage, a progressive school for “normal” children founded in 1907 by Ovide Decroly (1871-1932).1 Among them were the 1946 plans of architects Renaat Braem (1910-2001) and Jack Sokol (1911-1977) ...

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16. The ‘Good Practices’ of Jozef Emiel Verheyen – Schoolman and Professor of Education at the Ghent University: A Case of Using Educationally Correct Discourse at the Right Place and the Right Time

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pp. 359-384

In more than one article (Depaepe, 1998c; Depaepe, Simon & Van Gorp, 2003; Depaepe & Van Gorp, 2003), we have pointed out that, for an appreciation of the educational mentality and reality of the past, the study of the lesser stars in the educational firmament is more – or at least just as – important as that of the great figures. ...

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17. The Practical and Professional Relevance of Educational Research and Pedagogical Knowledge from the Perspective of History: Reflections on The Belgian Case in its International Background

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pp. 385-406

Apart from the academic frustration of educational research of the first half of the twentieth century, this expectation betrays the social task that ‘modern’ science of education has assumed for itself in the course of history. Scientific research into education has to contribute to the solution of all sorts of concrete problems ...

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18. Struggling with the Historical Attractiveness of Psychology for Educational Research: Illustrated by the Case of Nazi-Germany

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pp. 407-432

A few years ago, when we determined the themes for the upcoming meetings of the Leuven Research Community, I thought that there could be no easier task than that which lay before me at the moment: reporting on the history of the attractiveness of psychology for educational research. ...

V. The Self-Concept of a Demythologized ‘New Cultural’ History of Education

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pp. 433-434

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19. Demythologizing the Educational Past: An Endless Task in History of Education

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pp. 435-450

“My life in the history of education” – to borrow the title of a recent British series of scholarly autobiographies1 – began with a lively interest in educational practice. I became interested in the organization of the subject-based grade-school system and wished to find its origins. ...

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20. How Should the History of Education be Written? Some Reflections about the Nature of the Discipline from the Perspective of the Reception of our Work

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pp. 451-462

The title question, which was submitted to us by the guest editorial team of Studies in Philosophy and Education, obviously has a high normative content. At first sight, that is rather remarkable, because the question about how it should be done contrasts sharply with the blurred norms that are prevalent in postmodern society, ...

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21. The Ten Commandments of Good Practices in History of Education Research

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pp. 463-470

At the request of the editors, I am stating here briefly what are, for me, the most important rules of thumb of good practices in the history of education research. This I am doing on the basis of my many years of research experience as well as, on the basis of what I have published in several theoretical, methodological, and historiographical articles. ...

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22. After the Ten Commandments … the Sermon? Comments on David Labaree’s Research Recommendations

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pp. 471-476

It was bound to happen. After some supposed authority boldly announces ten commandments for good research practices in his domain (Depaepe, 2010), another one suddenly pops up – in this case a ‘real’ authority – who cannot resist the urge to give a sermon on almost the same subject (Labaree, 2011). ...

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23. Sources in the Making of Histories of Education: Proofs, Arguments and Other Forms of Reasoning from the Historian’s Workplace

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pp. 477-496

As we’ve often said in the past, historical research presents certain problems for the behavioural sciences. When we think about the history of education, can it, as the title of this book seems to suggest, be conceived of simply as a subdivision of educational research? ...

E-ISBN-13: 9789461660718
Print-ISBN-13: 9789058679178

Page Count: 496
Publication Year: 2012