Representations of National Culture
Publication Year: 2010
Published by: Central European University Press
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Series title page
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List of contributors, consultants, translators
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Table of Contents
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Chapter I. Cultural modernization: Institutionalization of “national sciences”
Nikolaos Politis: Study on the life of modern Greeks
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Nikolaos Politis [1852, Kalamata (the Peloponnese) – 1921, Athens]: a pioneer of folklore studies in Greece. He completed secondary education in his hometown. In 1868, he enrolled in the School of Philosophy at the University of Athens. From an early age, he started publishing on modern Greek culture in the literary review...
The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in word and picture
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Archduke Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia [1858, Schloss Laxenburg (Lower Austria) – 1889, Mayerling (Lower Austria)]: he was the son of Emperor Francis Joseph I (1830–1916) and heir to the Habsburg throne. Rudolf was tutored by prominent Austrian scholars, including the geologist and historian...
Ilarion Ruvarac: On Prince Lazar
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Ilarion Ruvarac [1832, Sremska Mitrovica (Hun. Szávaszentdemeter, Vojvodina, present-day west Serbia) – 1905, Grgeteg Monastery (near Novi Sad, Hun. Újvidék)]: clergyman and historian, founder of the “critical school” in Serbian historiography. Ruvarac attended gymnasiums in Sremski Karlovci (Hun. Karlóca) and Vienna. During his Law studies in Vienna (1852–56), he became interested in history....
Dimitar Marinov: Living antiquity
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Dimitar Marinov [1846, Armaluj, present-day north Bulgaria – 1940, Sofia]: ethnologist and historian. Born in the village of Armaluj, he was adopted by a rich burgher family from Lom, the period’s most important northwestern Bulgarian town on the Danube. He studied first with Neofit Rilski at the Rila Monastery (1863), and later at the military medical school in Constantinople (Tur. Istanbul) (1867–1871)....
Zsolt Beöthy: The small mirror of Hungarian literature
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Zsolt Beöthy [1848, Buda – 1922, Budapest]: writer, literary historian. He stemmed from a Protestant gentry family, his father was Zsigmond Beöthy, prominent writer, jurist and politician. He studied in Pest, Vienna, and Munich. After working at the Ministry of Finance for four years (1871–1875), he became a secondary school teacher. After 1878, he started teaching literature at the University of...
Şemseddin Sami: Turkish lexicon
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Şemseddin Sami (Sami Frashëri) [1850, Frashër (present-day southeast Albania) – 1904, Istanbul]: linguist, lexicographer, novelist, and playwright. The multifarous Ottoman intellectual was born in the village of Frashër, then in the province of Yanya (Gr. Ioannina, Alb. Janina). He is the brother of Abdül (Abdyl) Bey (politician) and Naim Bey (poet), two important names in the formation of the Albanian...
Eugen Lovinescu: The history of modern Romanian civilization
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Eugen Lovinescu [1881, Fălticeni (Moldavia) – 1943, Bucharest]: literary critic and historian of literature. Lovinescu completed his primary and secondary education in Fălticeni, where his father was a professor of history, and Iaşi. From 1900 to 1902, Lovinescu was a student in classical philology at the University of Bucharest. He studied with the historians Grigore Tocilescu and Nicolae Iorga, and the literary...
Boyan Penev: History of new Bulgarian literature
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Boyan Penev [1882, Shumen (east Bulgaria) – 1927, Sofia]: literary critic and historian. He completed his secondary education in Rousse and graduated from the ‘Department of Slavic Philology’ at Sofia University in 1907. He became a professor in the ‘Department of Bulgarian and Slavic Literature’ at Sofia University in 1917, and then department chair in 1925. Between 1923 and 1924, he gave lectures on the...
Afet İnan: Prolegomena to an outline of Turkish history
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Afet İnan (Ayşe Afetinan) [1908, Selanik (Gr. Thessaloniki, present-day Greece) – 1985, Ankara]: scholar and national activist. She was a recent graduate of the ‘Bursa Teacher’s School’ when, in 1925, Mustafa Kemal met her in Izmir and took interest in her education. The same year, she was sent to Lausanne by the government to learn French. Upon her return in 1927, she became a history teacher at the...
Vladimir Levstik: The mission of language
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Vladimir (Ciril) Levstik [1886, Šmihel nad Mozirjem (Ger. Sankt Michael oberhalb von Praßberg) − 1957, Celje (Ger. Cilli, present-day Slovenia)]: poet, essayist, critic, translator and journalist. Levstik attended schools in Št. Andraž nad Polzelo, Celje, Maribor (Ger. Marburg an der Drau), and Ljubljana (Ger. Laibach). Poverty forced him to abandon his studies in 1904, when he was a seventh grade student. He...
Dimitrie Gusti: The science of nation
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Dimitrie Gusti [1880, Iaşi – 1955, Bucharest]: sociologist, ethnographer and the founder of the ‘Bucharest Sociological School,’ or the so-called ‘Monographic School.’ Gusti was born to a family of local notables and completed his primary and secondary education in Iaşi. In 1898, Gusti enrolled in the University of Berlin, where he studied with the German philosopher, Friedrich Paulsen (1846–1908)....
Chapter II. The “Critical turns”: Subverting the Romantic narratives
Józef Szujski: Some truths from our history
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Józef Szujski [1835, Tarnów (present-day south Poland) – 1883, Cracow]: one of the most highly regarded Polish historians and conservative politicians. Szujski studied in Cracow and Vienna. Considered politically subversive, he was denied the position of history instructor at the Warsaw ‘High School’ (Szkoła Główna). Thus, he concentrated on his political writings. His Portrety przez Nie-Van-Dycka (Portraits...
Titu Maiorescu: Against the contemporary direction in Romanian culture
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Titu Maiorescu [1840, Craiova – 1917, Bucharest]: literary critic and politician. His father was a well-known writer and Transylvanian Romanian political activist. In 1851, Maiorescu enrolled in the famous Theresianum Academy in Vienna. In 1854, he began publishing short poems and stories. In 1858, after graduating from the Theresianum, he continued his studies in Berlin and Gießen, where he submitted his...
Michał Bobrzyński: The outline of Polish history
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Michał Bobrzyński [1849, Cracow – 1935, Poznań]: one of the most important Polish historians and an influential politician. At the age of 28, he became professor at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow. At the age of 29, he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences. He was a deputy in the Viennese Parliament, and vicepresident...
Garabet Ibrăileanu: The critical spirit in Romanian culture
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Garabet Ibrăileanu [1871, Târgu-Frumos (Moldavia) – 1936, Bucharest]: literary critic. Ibrăileanu was the son of a merchant. From 1883 to 1890, he received primary, secondary and high school education in his native town. In 1890, he enrolled in the University of Iaşi, from which he graduated in 1896. For the next decade, he was a substitute professor, first in Bacău (1896–1900) and then in Iaşi (1900–1908)....
Giorgos Skliros: Our social question
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Giorgos Skliros (born Giorgos Konstantinidis) [1878, Trabzon (Gr. Trapezounta, present-day Turkey) – 1919, Alexandria]: medical doctor and socialist theorist. He was born into a well-off bourgeois family. At a young age, he was sent by his family to Odessa and then to Moscow, where he studied medicine. There, he became familiar with socialist ideas, especially Georgi Plekhanov’s theories. In 1905, he...
Bohdan Pavlů: Progressivism and conservativism in Slovakia
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Bohdan Pavlů [1883, Spešov (south Moravia) – 1938, Bosanski Novi (Bosnia)]: journalist, literary critic, translator and diplomat. He studied law in Prague, Vienna and Budapest. He could not conclude his studies, and from 1903 he started to work as a journalist. He belonged to a group of young Slovak intelligentsia formed around...
Josef Pekař: The meaning of Czech history
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Josef Pekař [1870, Malý Rohozec (near Turnov, Ger. Turnau, north Bohemia) – 1937 Prague]: historian. Born into a farming family, he studied at a grammar school in Mladá Boleslav. Later, he studied history and geography at Charles University in Prague. In 1897, he became a private docent with his work on the history of the...
Jovan Skerlić: The new youth magazines and our new generations
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Jovan Skerlić [1877, Belgrade – 1914, Belgrade]: literary critic, historian of literature. He was born into a middle-class family with origins in Šumadija and Vojvodina. While attending the gymnasium in Belgrade, he was introduced to the socialist ideas of Svetozar Marković. In 1895, Skerlić began to work for various socialist...
Giorgos Theotokas: Free spirit
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Giorgos Theotokas, known also by the penname Orestis Digenis [1905, Istanbul – 1966, Athens]: novelist and critic. He completed his secondary education in a French lyceum in Istanbul. He wrote his first essays on literature during his high school years. In 1922, he moved to Athens to study law. In 1925–1926, during his...
Emanuel Rádl: The war between Czechs and Germans
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Emanuel Rádl [1873, Pyšely (central Bohemia) – 1942, Prague]: Czech biologist and philosopher. He came from a merchant family. After studying at grammar schools in Benešov and Domažlice (Ger. Taus), he spent two years in the novitiate of the Augustinian cloister after which he became a Protestant. He studied biology at the Czech branch of Prague University where he was influenced by the lectures of...
Branko Merxhani: The organization of the chaos
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Branko Merxhani [1894 Istanbul – 1981, Istanbul]: scholar and writer. He was born in Istanbul and educated in Germany. In all likelihood, only his father was Albanian. By the end of the 1920s he went to Gjirokastra, where, together with several other well-known intellectuals, he founded and published the journal...
Chapter III. Literary representations of the “national character”
Henryk Sienkiewicz: With fire and sword; Teutonic knights
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Henryk Sienkiewicz [1846, Wola Okrzejska (in Podlachia, present-day east Poland) – 1916, Vevey (Switzerland)]: writer. Born into a gentry family in the poor region of Podlasie, Sienkiewicz moved with his family to Warsaw, where he had the opportunity to study at Szkoła Główna, a Polish higher education institution which...
Aleko Konstantinov: Bay Ganyo
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Aleko Konstantinov [1863, Svishtov (present-day north Bulgaria) – 1897, on the road to Pazardzhik (central Bulgaria)]: lawyer, journalist and writer. Born into an upper class family, Konstantinov received the best education available, graduating from the law school at Odessa. He became a public prosecutor in Sofia, but soon left...
Ion Luca Caragiale: Rromanian man and Rromanian woman
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Ion Luca Caragiale [1852, Haimanale (near Ploieşti) – 1912, Berlin]: playwright and literary critic. The son of a lawyer, Caragiale completed primary and secondary education in Ploieşti. After graduating, he worked in his uncle’s theatre company. In 1870, he participated in a republican revolt in Ploieşti. After its suppression, Caragiale...
Alexandros Papadiamantis: Easter chanter
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Alexandros Papadiamantis: [Skiathos (central Greece) 1851 – Skiathos 1911]: short story writer and translator. He was the third son of the priest Adamantios, hence the family name (papa-Diamantis). His mother was the offspring of a well-off family from the Peloponnese. His father was very much influenced by the teaching of Kolyvades, a very conservative version of Orthodoxy. Alexandros accompanied...
Ömer Seyfeddin: Primo, the Turkish child
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Ömer Seyfeddin [1884, Gönen, Balıkesir (northwest Anatolia, present-day Turkey) – 1920, Istanbul]: essayist and storywriter. The son of an Ottoman military officer from the Caucasus, he graduated from the military academy in Istanbul in 1903. Following the 1908 revolution, he served as an officer in Macedonia on missions against local guerillas. Later he resigned from the army and settled in Salonica...
Ştefan Zeletin: The national character of donkeys
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Ştefan M. Zeletin (born Ştefan Motaş) [1882, Burdusaci (Bacău county) – 1934, Bucharest]: economist and political theorist. His family belonged to the local freepeasantry. He studied at the lyceum in Bârlad and at the theological seminary in Roman. After graduating, he went on to study philosophy at the University of Iaşi...
Jaroslav Hašek: The good soldier Švejk
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Jaroslav Hašek [1883, Prague – 1923, Lipnice near Německý Brod (after 1945 Havlíčkův Brod) (Ger. Deutschbrod)]: journalist and writer. Born into the family of a high school teacher, he studied at a commercial academy, and later led a bohemian and vagrant life wandering through Bohemia, Hungary and Galicia. He was jailed briefly for alleged anarchist activities in 1907. Later he worked as the editor in...
Robert Musil: The man without qualities
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Robert Musil [1880, Klagenfurt – 1942, Geneva]: writer, dramatist and essayist. Musil spent most of his childhood in Steyr and Brünn (Cz. Brno), where his father, an engineer, was appointed to the chair of Mechanical Engineering at the German Technical University in 1891. Between 1892 and 1894, Musil attended the military...
Gjergj Fishta: The highland lute
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Gjergj Fishta (born Zef Ndoka) [1871, Fishtë, near Shkodra – 1939, Shkodra, west Albania]: poet, writer, politician, publicist, educator, and one of the most prominent figures in Albanian cultural life during the first half of the twentieth century. He was educated initially in Franciscan colleges in Troshan and in Shkodra...
Miroslav Krleža: The Banquet in Blitva
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Miroslav Krleža [1893 Zagreb – 1981, Zagreb]: writer and the most outstanding Croatian intellectual of the twentieth century. He graduated from a military cadet school in Pécs, and attended the Ludoviceum Military Academy in Budapest, from which he dropped out in 1913, starting a literary career. He spent most of the First World War in hospitals as a military convalescent, while publishing his first books,...
Aleksander Kamiński: Stones for the rampart
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Aleksander Kamiński [1903, Warsaw – 1978, Warsaw]: writer and propagator of scouting. Kamiński spent his childhood in Ukraine, after which he studied history and archaeology in Warsaw. In the inter-war period, he was one of the leaders of the Polish scout movement (Związek Harcerstwa Polskiego, the ZHP). During the Second World War, Polish scouting continued its activity as a clandestine organization –...
Chapter IV.Aesthetic modernism and collective identities
Ioannis Psicharis: My journey
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Ioannis (Jean) Psicharis [1854, Odessa – 1929, Paris]: writer, linguist and critic. Psicharis was born to a well-off family. After his mother’s early death his father brought him to Istanbul in 1860, where he spent his childhood. His native language was Russian and it was only in Istanbul that he studied French and Greek at the French Lycée Bonaparte. In 1869, he left for Marseille to conclude his high school...
The Czech modern
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The 1890s in Bohemia were characterized by far-reaching changes in political life as well as in the arts. These changes emerged in the wake of fast industrialization, economic boom and social differentiation in society. In the political sphere the liberal nationalist Young Czech Party reached the foremost...
Artur Górski: Young Poland
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Artur Górski [1870, Cracow – 1959, Warsaw]: literary critic, writer and translator. As a graduate of law from Cracow University, Górski joined the Polish Socialist Party in 1892, but soon reverted to Catholicism. He put aside his political sympathies and concentrated on literary criticism, the theory of literature and translation (Goethe, Ibsen, and Kierkegaard). He represented the generation which called into...
Endre Ady: I am the son of king Gog of Magog; Song of the Hungarian Jacobin
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Endre Ady [1877, Érmindszent (Transylvania, Rom. Mecenţiu, present-day Ady Endre, in Romania) – 1919, Budapest]: poet, critic, journalist, the key figure of Hungarian modernist literature. He was the descendant of an impoverished Calvinist gentry family. He attended the Piarist Gymnasium in Nagykároly (Rom. Carei, presentday...
Dimo Kyorchev: Our sorrows
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Dimo Kyorchev [1884, Veliko Tarnovo – 1928, Paris]: philosopher, essayist and politician. His father Petar Kyorchev was a teacher and former collaborator of Vasil Levski, the leader of the movement for national liberation. He graduated from high school in his hometown and, in 1905, left for Leipzig, where he started his studies in law. In 1908, he graduated from the faculty of law at the University of Sofia. Subsequently,...
Antun Gustav Matoš: Art and nationalism
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Antun Gustav Matoš [1873, Tovarnik (near Vukovar, east Croatia) – 1914, Zagreb]: writer and journalist. After graduating from the gymnasium in Zagreb, he attended the Military Veterinary Academy in Vienna in 1893. In 1894 he defected from the Austro-Hungarian army and fled to Belgrade. Between 1894 and 1898, Matoš lived in Belgrade as a freelance journalist, and later, left for Paris, where he...
Ladislav Novomeský: The current state and the development of Slovak culture
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Ladislav Novomeský [1904, Budapest – 1976, Bratislava]: poet, writer and politician. Born to a tailor’s family, he attended grammar school in Budapest and then, between 1919 and 1922, the Institute of Pedagogy in Nitra. During his stay in Prague in the 1920s, he became a member of the Communist Party and was recognized as one of the main representatives of the young left-wing Slovak intelligentsia which...
Millosh Gjergj Nikolla: We, the sons of the new age; The highlander recital
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Millosh Gjergj Nikolla (known under his literary acronym Migjeni) [1911, Shkodra (It. Scutari, Srb. Skadar) – 1938, Torre Pellice, near Turin]: writer and one of the most powerful poetical voices in interwar Albanian literature. Born to an Orthodox Christian family in which Serbo-Croatian was the dominant language, young Millosh first attended the Serbian primary school in Shkodra. In 1925 he was enrolled...
Tevfik Fikret: Haluk’s credo
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Tevfik Fikret [1867, Istanbul – 1915, Istanbul]: poet and pivotal figure in the founding of modern Turkish literature. In 1888, Fikret graduated from the ‘Imperial School of Galatasaray,’ founded in 1867 on the model of the French lycée for the education of civil servants. In 1891, he was already a prize-winning poet and a prominent member of Istanbul’s literary circles. After briefly working as a Turkish...
Witold Gombrowicz: Ferdydurke
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Witold Gombrowicz [1904, Małoszyce (near Kielce) – 1969, Vence (France)]: writer, dramatist and publicist. He was born into a well-off gentry family in the provincial region of central Poland. Gombrowicz studied law at Warsaw University and spent a year at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Internationales in Paris. On the eve of the Second World War, as a young lawyer, a literary critic, and an active member of...
Chapter V. Regionalism, autonomism and the minority identity-building narratives
Hovsep Vartanian: The constiutitonal truths
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Hovsep Vartanian (Vartan Pasha) [1816, Istanbul–1879, Istanbul]: Ottoman statesman, journalist, author and translator of Armenian Catholic origin. He received his elementary education at the Kumkapı Bezcian School in Istanbul. In 1827 he was sent to the Mekhitarist Monastery of Vienna to continue his education. After returning to Istanbul in 1836, he started to teach at the Hasköy Nersesian School. In 1837...
Celadet Alî Bedirxan: The Kurdish question, its origins and causes
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Celadet Alî Bedirxan [1893, Istanbul – 1951, Damascus]: intellectual and Kurdish national activist. Son of Emin Alî Bedirxan, who was the leader of the Bedirxanî clan in Istanbul and among the pioneers of Kurdish cultural nationalism in the Ottoman Empire. Celadet Bedirxan received his primary and high school education in Istanbul. During the First World War he served in the Ottoman army and fought on...
Krste Petkov Misirkov: On Macedonian matters
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Krste Petkov Misirkov [1874, Postol (present-day Pella in north Greece) – 1926, Sofia]: politician and journalist. After finishing primary education in a Greek school in his own village, he continued his education in Belgrade, Šabac (Serbia) and Sofia. He graduated from the school for teachers in Belgrade and the Seminary in Poltava. While in Serbia, he was a member of the association of Macedonian students in Belgrade...
Metropolitan Andrzej Szeptycki: Address delivered at House of Lords in Vienna
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Roman Maria Aleksander Szeptycki (Andrei Sheptytsky) [1865, Przyłbice near Lviv (Ukr. Prylbychi, present-day Ukraine) – 1944, Lviv]: clergyman and Ukrainian national leader. Szeptycki was Uniate bishop of Stanisławów (Ukr. Ivano- Frankivsk, present-day Ukraine), metropolitan of Halicz (Ukr. Halich, present day Ukraine), archbishop of Lviv (Pol. Lwów, Ger. Lemberg), bishop of Kamieniec Podolski...
Károly Kós: Transylvania
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Károly Kós [original name Kosch] [1883, Temesvár (Rom. Timişoara, presentday Romania) – 1977, Cluj-Napoca (Ger. Klausenburg, Hun. Kolozsvár, present-day Romania)]: architect, designer, ethnographer, editor and writer. He was a crucial figure of the Hungarian intelligentsia in Transylvania and a prominent member of East European Art Nouveau. Kós came from an ethnic German family and his father...
Romul Boilă: Study on the reorganization of the unified Romanian state
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Romul Boilă [1881, Târnava-Mică (Hun. Tirnáva, present-day Romania) – 1946, Sighet]: lawyer and political theorist. His father was a village priest. He studied law in Cluj (Hun. Kolozsvár, Ger. Klausenburg) and Budapest. Between 1918 and 1920, Boilă was a member of the ‘Ruling Council,’ a political committee organized to facilitate...
Josef Pfitzner: Sudeten German history
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Josef Pfitzner [1901 Petersburg near Zuckmantel (Cz. Petrovice near Zlaté Hory, Austrian Silesia) – 1945, Prague]: Bohemian German historian and politician. He was born into a shoemaker’s family. After attending grammar school in Opava (Ger. Troppau), he studied history at Prague’s German university. Here, in 1930, he became Professor of East European history. Among his interests were the regional,...
Resolution of the Muslims of Banjaluka
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The resolutions issued by Bosnian Muslim political, religious and social elites during the second half of 1941 represent a dramatic peak in the Bosnian Muslim politics of the pre-communist era. These resolutions did not have any substantial impact on what was happening in the...
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Page Count: 404
Publication Year: 2010
Series Title: Discourses of Collective Identity in Central and Southeast Europe 1770-1945
Series Editor Byline: Balazs Trencsenyi