The Creation of Nation-States
Publication Year: 2010
Published by: Central European University Press
Series Title Page
Contributors, Consultants and Translators
The ‘Identity Reader’ Project
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The present double volume is the third one of the series entitled Discourses of Collective Identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945): Texts and Commentaries. The history of this venture goes back to the meeting of a group of young scholars at the Balkan Summer University in...
Maria Todorova: Modernism
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Like culture and civilization, imperialism and orientalism, or nations and nationalism, modernity and modernism are concepts that suffer from overuse. Some scholars despair about the impossibility to reach a consensus about their meaning and use, and call on entirely abandoning them...
Chapter I: Making of the modern state in a multi-national context
František Palacký: The idea of the Austrian state
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František Palacký [1798, Hodslavice (Ger. Hotzendorf, north Moravia) – 1876, Prague]: politician and historian. He came from a traditional Protestant (Bohemian Brethren) family in Moravia. He studied at the Lutheran Latin School in Trencsén (Slo. Trenčín, present-day Slovakia) and the Lutheran Lyceum in...
Adolf Fischhof: Austria and the guarantee of its existence
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Adolf Fischhof [1816, Óbuda (Ger. Alt-Ofen, Hungary) – 1893, Emmersdorf (near Klagenfurt, Austria)]: physician and political writer. He stemmed from a Moravian Jewish merchant family which had settled in Hungary at the turn of the nineteenth century. Fischof graduated from the Piarist gymnasium...
Jan Palárik: What should we expect from the Hungarian constitution for our nationality and what do we need most now?
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Ján Palárik [1822, Raková (Hun. Trencsénrákó, present-day northwest Slovakia) – 1870, Majcichov (Hun. Majtény, present-day west Slovakia)]: Catholic priest, journalist, playwright and politician. His father was a village teacher. He received his secondary education in Žilina (Hun. Zsolna) and Kecskemét, and later...
József Eötvös: The nationality question
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József Eötvös [1813, Buda – 1871, Pest]: politician, writer, the most prominent Hungarian political thinker of the nineteenth century. Eötvös was the descendant of an aristocratic family, his father was a notoriously pro-Habsburg loyalist. He studied...
Franjo Rački: Yugoslavism
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Franjo Rački [1828, Fužine, (near Rijeka, It. Fiume) – 1894, Zagreb]: Catholic priest, historian and politician. During the 1849–1860 absolutist regime in the Habsburg Empire, he was not involved in politics, teaching theology at the seminary in...
Lovro Toman: To compatriots!
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Lovro Toman [1827, Kamna Gorica (Ger. Steinbüchel, present-day Slovenia) − 1870, Rodaun (present-day Austria)]: poet, writer and one of the most popular and influential Slovenian politicians of the nineteenth century. He studied law in Vienna...
Ferenc Deák: The Easter article
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Ferenc Deák [1803, Söjtör (west Hungary) – 1876, Budapest]: Hungarian politician, lawyer. He came from the nobility of Zala county. Studied law and philosophy at the Academy of Győr (1817–1821). He was a practicing lawyer from 1823 and...
Aleksander Świętochowski: Political directives
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Aleksander Świętochowski [1849, Stoczek (in Podlachia, present-day east Poland) – 1938, Gołotczyzna (central Poland)]: politician and writer. Aleksander Świętochowski, like many other adherents of Polish positivism, graduated from...
Mehmed-beg Kapetanović Ljubušak: What Mohammedans in Bosnia think
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Mehmed beg Kapetanović Ljubušak [1839, Ljubuški (Herzegovina) – 1902, Sarajevo]: public official and writer. He received his primary education in his hometown and completed his secondary education in Mostar, thereafter continuing with...
Aleksa Šantić: Stay here
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Aleksa Šantić [1868, Mostar (Herzegovina) – 1924, Mostar]: poet, publicist and writer of Serb nationality from Bosnia and Herzegovina. He was born into a rich merchant family in Mostar. He spent almost his entire life in Mostar, except for short...
Karl Renner: State and nation
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Karl Renner [1870, Unter-Tannowitz (Cz. Dolní Dunajovice, present-day Czech Republic) – 1950, Vienna]: politician, jurist, sociologist and political columnist. Of peasant stock, he studied law at the University of Vienna and became a research...
Ziya Gökalp: What is Turkism?
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Ziya Gökalp [1876, Diyarbakır – 1924, Ankara]: sociologist and national activist. Born in the city of Diyarbakır, the administrative and cultural center of eastern Anatolia, Gökalp (born Mehmed Ziya) started his primary education at a local military...
CHAPTER II: Self-determination, democratization, and the homogenizing state
Draga Dejanović: To Serbian mothers
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Draga Dejanović [1840, Stara Kanjiža (Hun. Magyarkanizsa), Vojvodina – 1871, Óbecse (Srb. Stari Bečej)]: actress and writer. She was born into an upper middle class family. Her father Živojin Dimitrijević was a lawyer, while her mother Sofia...
Kalliroi Parren: The life of one year. Letters from an Athenian to a Parisianlady, 1896–97
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Kalliroi Siganou–Parren [1861, Rethimnon (the island of Crete) – 1938, Athens]: journalist and activist. She received her primary education in the Nuns’ school in Piraeus, and later studied at the Arsakion school, a model school for girls in...
Maria Dulębianka: The political stance of woman
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Maria Dulębianka [1861, Cracow – 1919 Lwów (Ukr. Lviv)]: painter, social worker and women rights activist. She was born into a gentry family in Galicia. Dulębianka studied painting (she was a student of Jan Matejko, the most famous..
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The modern Bulgarian state was founded in the aftermath of the 1877– 1878 Russian–Ottoman war. The Treaty of San Stefano, signed by Russia and the Ottoman Empire, declared the creation of a large Bulgarian state...
Pera Todorović: Speech at the assembly of the People’s Radical Party in Kragujevac
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Pera Todorovic [1852, Vodice (near Smederevo, east Serbia) – 1907, Belgrade]: politician and journalist. He was born into a well-off family. He first attended a secondary school in Kragujevac, later resuming his education at the gymnasium...
Stjepan Radić: Speech at the night assembly of the national council on 24 November, 1918
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Stjepan Radić [1871, Trebarjevo Desno (central Croatia) – 1928, Zagreb]: politician and political theorist. Between 1895 and 1896, he studied at the Prague University, where he endorsed Tomáš Masaryk’s political and social thought. Due to his...
Josip Vilfan: The speech in the Italian Parliament
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Josip Vilfan (Wilfan) [1878, Trieste (Cro., Slov. Trst) − 1955, Belgrade]: lawyer and politician. His political life began in 1906, when he became the secretary of the political society Edinost (Unity) in Trieste, becoming its president four years later. In...
Alexandros Papanastasiou: Republican manifesto
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Alexandros Papanastasiou [1876, Tripoli (the Peloponnese) – 1936, Athens]: politician and political theorist. He studied law in Athens and political economy and philosophy in Berlin. There, he was influenced by the concept of the protectionist...
Faik Konitza: The political crisis in Albania
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Faik Konitza (Faik Salko also known as Faik Bey Konica) [1875 (or 1876), Konitza (Alb. Konica, present-day northern Greece) – 1942, Washington D.C.]: politician, thinker, writer and editor. He was the descendant of a prominent Ottoman...
Halide Edib: The Turkish ordeal
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Halide Edib (Adıvar) [1882, Istanbul – 1964, Istanbul]: writer, journalist and political activist. Halide Edib was among the most prolific writers of the late Ottoman and early Republican periods, as well as being the most prominent female public...
Edvard Beneš: Democracy today and tomorrow
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Edvard Beneš [1884, Kožlany (near Rakovník, west Bohemia) – 1948, Sezimovo Ústí (south Bohemia)]: politician and sociologist. He came from a farming family. He studied sociology, economics and law at Prague, Paris, Berlin and Dijon. At an...
CHAPTER III: “National projects” and their regional framework
Tomáš G. Masaryk: The Czech question
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Tomáš G. Masaryk [1850, Hodonín (Ger. Göding, south Moravia) – 1937, Lány (near Prague)]: the founder and first president of Czechoslovakia, sociologist, philosopher and politician. He was born into a family with a mixed ethnic and linguistic...
Heinrich Friedjung: The struggle for supremacy in Germany, 1859–1866
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Heinrich Friedjung [1851, Roschtin (Cz. Roštín, Moravia) – 1920, Vienna]: historian and politician. Friedjung was the son of a Jewish tradesman. After studying history and German language in Prague, Vienna and Berlin he became a teacher at...
Yusuf Akçura: Three types of policy
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Yusuf Akçura (Akçuraoğlu Yusuf or Yusuf Akchurin) [1876, Simbirsk (Russia) – 1935, Ankara]: historian, political theorist and activist. He was born to an upper- bourgeois family of Volga Tatars in Simbirsk, the home town of Lenin. Upon the...
Jovan Cvijić: On national work
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Jovan Cvijić [1865, Loznica (west Serbia) – 1927, Belgrade]: geographer. He studied natural sciences and mathematics at the Velika škola in Belgrade, the first high school, later university, in Serbia. He continued his advanced studies in physical...
Ismail Qemali: Memorandum sent to Lord Edward Grey
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Ismail Qemali bej Vlora (also known as Ismail Kemal Pasha) [1844, Vlora, (It. Valona, present-day west Albania) – 1919, Rome]: politician and publicist. He was born into a noble family and received his primary education in his native town of...
Ivan Cankar: The Slovenes and the Yugoslavs
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Ivan Cankar [1876, Vrhnika (Ger. Laibach Altober, present-day Slovenia) − 1918, Ljubljana (Ger. Laibach)]: story writer, playwright, poet and essayist. He was the eighth child in a broken family. His father was a tailor who abandoned his trade...
Frano Supilo: The memorandum to Sir Edward Grey, 7 January, 1915
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Frano Supilo [1870, Cavtat, near Dubrovnik – 1917, London]: journalist and politician. Born into a poor craftsman family, he started his political career in the ethnic Croatian party Stranka Prava (Party of Rights), acting as the editor of the...
Eleftherios Venizelos: The program of his foreign policy
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Eleftherios Venizelos: [1864, Mournies (the island of Crete) – 1936, Paris]: the most prominent Greek politician of the twentieth century. He was born to a well-off merchant family. He completed his secondary education in Chania...
Anton Strashimirov: Book of the Bulgarians
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Anton Strashimirov [1872, Varna – 1937, Sofia]: writer, essayist and political activist. After the premature death of his father during Strashimirov’s youth, he led the life of a vagabond. Later, however, he began working as a teacher in eastern...
Program of the Yugoslav Muslim Organization
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The year 1918 was a turning point in the economic and social life of Bosnian Muslims, as it marked the official end of the old sharecropping land tenure system in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This system was frequently, but...
Ján Lajčiak: The Slovak as a national individuality
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Ján Lajčiak [1875, Pribylina (Hun. Pribilina) – 1918 Vyšná Boca (Hun. Királyboca) near Liptovský Mikuláš (Hun. Liptószentmiklós)]: Lutheran priest, philosopher, theologian, orientalist and translator. He studied theology in Prešov...
István Bibó: On European balance and peace
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István Bibó [1911, Budapest – 1979, Budapest]: philosopher of law, political thinker, politician. He came from a Calvinist middle-class family of civil servants and intellectuals. He studied law at the University of Szeged, and specialized in the...
CHAPTER IV: Federalism and the decline of the empires
Stjepan Radić: Slavic politics in the Habsburg monarchy
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The turn-of-the-century emergence of German imperial Drang nach Osten politics, geared towards the political subjugation of the European east, the crisis of dualism in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and the subsequent...
Aurel C. Popovici: The United States of Greater Austria
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Aurel Constantin Popovici [1863, Lugoj (Hun. Lugos in Banat) – 1917, Geneva]: politician and publicist. He was the son of an artisan. After completing his primary and secondary education, he studied at the Hungarian Gymnasium in...
Oszkár Jászi: The future of the Monarchy
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Oszkár Jászi [1875, Nagykároly (Rom. Carei, present-day Romania) – 1957, Oberlin, Ohio]: politician and political scientist. He came from a secularized Jewish middle-class family which converted to Calvinism during his childhood. He studied...
Prince Sabahaddin: A second account on individual initiative anddecentralization
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Prince Sabahaddin (Mehmed Sabahaddin) [1878, Istanbul – 1948, Neuchâtel (Switzerland)]: Ottoman intellectual, politician and member of the royal family. His mother, Seniha Sultan, was the sister of Sultan Abdülhamid II, while his father...
Georgios Boussios: The political program of Hellenism in Turkey
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Georgios Boussios [1876, Grevena (Ottoman Macedonia) – 1929, Athens]: activist, politician and journalist. He was born into a well-off family of merchants. He concluded his primary education in his hometown. He then moved to Istanbul...
Tomáš G. Masaryk: The New Europe
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Masaryk, a well-known scholar and public intellectual, but a politician on the margins, was sixty-four when he left Prague in December 1914. In the summer of the next year he launched his campaign for an independent...
Anton Melik: A nation in the making
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Anton Melik [1890, Črna vas (Ger. Schwarzendorf, present-day Slovenia) − 1966, Ljubljana]: geographer and historian. He studied in Vienna between 1911 and 1916, and in 1927 received his doctorate in geography from Ljubljana University...
Dimitar Mihalchev: Is unitary and integral Yugoslavia possible?
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Dimitar Mihalchev [1880, Lozengrad (Tur. Kırklareli, present-day Turkey) – 1967, Sofia]: philosopher and diplomat. Appointed a professor at Sofia University in 1920, Mihalchev was also a member of the Academy of Sciences starting in...
Józef Piłsudski: Address delivered in Vilnius
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Józef Piłsudski [1867, Zułów (in the district of Święciany, Lit. Zalave/Švenčionys, present-day Lithuania) – 1935, Warsaw]: politician. Piłsudski was born to a family belonging to the Polish-speaking gentry in the Lithuanian part...
Michal Römer: Answer to Józef Piłsudski
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Michał Römer (Lit. Mykolas Römeris) [1880, Bohdaniszki, Lit. Bagdoniškys (present-day Lithuania) – 1945, Vilnius]: journalist and politician. After studying in St. Petersburg, in Cracow and at the Ecole des Sciences Politiques in Paris, Römer...
Milan Hodža: Federation in Central Europe
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Milan Hodža [1878, Sučany (Hun. Szucsány) near Turčiansky Svätý Martin (Hun. Turócszentmárton) – 1944, Clearwater, Florida]: politician and journalist. He was born into the family of a Protestant pastor. After being banished from the...
CHAPTER V: Socialism and the nationality question
Hristo Botev: The people
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Hristo Botev [1848, Kalofer (Balkan valley, present-day central Bulgaria) – 1876, in the Balkan mountain, near Vratsa]: poet, journalist and revolutionary leader. He was born into the family of the teacher Botyo Petkov, one of the figures of the...
Svetozar Marković: Serbia in the East
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Svetozar Marković [1846, Jagodina (present-day central Serbia) – 1875, Trieste]: the founder of the socialist movement in Serbia. As an exceptional student of the Velika škola, the first high school and later university in Serbia, he won a state...
Józef Piłsudski: On patriotism
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In the 1890s, three modern political movements emerged in Polish politics: the nationalist, agrarian, and the socialist parties. Their activities were illegal in the Russian-controlled regions of pre-partition Poland. This forced them to coordinate their efforts...
Bohumír Šmeral: The national question and the social democrats
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Bohumír Šmeral [1880, Třebíč (Ger. Trebitsch, Bohemian-Moravian Uplands) – 1941, Moscow]: politician and journalist. In 1896 while still in secondary school in Třebíč, Šmeral joined Pokrok (Progress), a social democratic workers...
Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea: Neo-serfdom
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Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (Solomon Katz) [1855, Slavjanka (present-day Ukraine) – 1920, Bucharest]: literary critic and socialist politician. He was born into a Jewish family; his father was a merchant. Dobrogeanu-Gherea began his studies...
August Cesarec: The national question and our missions
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August Cesarec [1893, Zagreb – 1941, Zagreb]: writer and publicist. As a gymnasium student he joined the Nacionalistička Omladina (Yugoslav Nationalistic Youth), a radical revolutionary group of young Serbs and Croats advocating the idea...
Otto Bauer: The Austrian revolution
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Otto Bauer [1881, Vienna – 1938, Paris]: politician, sociologist and political journalist. Coming from a well-off Jewish bourgeois family, he studied law in Vienna, earning his doctoral degree in 1906. He joined the Austrian Social Democratic...
Abraham Benaroya: The socialist frenzy of two decades
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Abraham Benaroya [1887, Vidin (present-day north-west Bulgaria) – 1979, Holon (Israel)]: journalist, trade unionist and socialist theoretician. In 1907, he graduated from high school and became a teacher of Bulgarian at a Jewish school in...
Attila József: By the Danube
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Attila József [1905, Budapest – 1937, Balatonszárszó]: one of the most important Hungarian poets of the twentieth century. His father was a soap-maker, most probably of Romanian origins, who left the family in 1908. József’s mother, a...
Michal Chorváth: The Romantic face of Slovakia
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Michal Chorváth [1910, Slovenské Pravno (Hun. Turócábrahámfalva) – 1982, Bratislava]: literary critic, essayist, poet and translator. Between 1928 and 1936 he studied medicine at Charles University in Prague. Later, between 1936 and 1940, he...
Nazım Hikmet: The legend of the national militia
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Nazım Hikmet (Ran) [1902, Selanik (Gr. Thessaloniki, present-day Greece) – 1963, Moscow]: poet and playwright. Recognized as Turkey’s first and foremost modern poet, Nazım Hikmet was born to a family of pashas and bureaucrats...
The fundamental principles of the Liberation Front
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In the aftermath of the First World War, the Slovenian workers’ movement split into a non-revolutionary socialist fraction, and a revolutionary, communist one. The latter under the name Delavska Socialistična Stranka za Slovenijo (Workers’ Socialist Party in Slovenia), became...
Josip Broz Tito: National question in Yugoslavia in the light of the LiberationWar
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Josip Broz Tito (originally named Josip Broz) [1892, Kumrovec (present-day Croatia) – 1980, Ljubljana]: politician, the leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1945 until his death. He was born into a poor peasant family, of a...
Page Count: 498
Publication Year: 2010
Series Title: Discourses of Collective Identity in Central and Southeast Europe 1770-1946
Series Editor Byline: Balazs Trencsenyi