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Comparative Media Systems

European and Global Perspectives

Edited by Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska et al.

Publication Year: 2010

Leading researchers from different regions of Europe and the United States address five major interrelated themes: 1) how ideological and normative constructs gave way to empirical systematic comparative work in media research; 2) the role of foreign media groups in post-communist regions and the effects of ownership in terms of impacts on media freedom; 3) the various dimensions of the relationship between mass media and political systems in a comparative perspective; 4) professionalization of journalism in different political cultures—autonomy of journalists, professional norms and practices, political instrumentalization and the commercialization of the media; 5) the role of state intervention in media systems

Published by: Central European University Press

Title page

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Copyright page

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Editors’ Introduction

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pp. vii-x

In this foreword, we want to go beyond perfunctory introductory remarks and review—however briefly and selectively—the extraordinary intellectual effort over the last half a century devoted to classifying media systems and/or press theories and normative media theories. More than that, we wish to look to the future. ...

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiv

From the papers in this collection, we have learned a great deal about the media and politics in specific countries. More importantly, this collection has given us new suggestions for continuing and deepening the research and the theoretical discussion that we started with our book Comparing Media Systems. In many ways the papers in this collection cast doubt on ...

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Introduction: Media Systems Research: An Overview

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pp. 1-21

“Press theories” are described by Siebert, Peterson, and Schramm (1956) as concepts of what “the press should be and do.” Normative media theory has been described by McQuail (1994, 121) as dealing with ideas of “how media ought to, or are expected to, operate.” Hallin and Mancini (2004, 1) say that they want to propose some answers to the question posed by Siebert, Peterson, and Schramm: “Why is the press as it is? ...

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Comparing West and East: A Comparative Approach to Transformation

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pp. 23-40

This is a proposal to introduce the term “transformation” into the comparative study of media systems. Transformation (from Latin: changing the form) refers to a change in form, nature, or function of a system. The term was originally used in other disciplines such as mathematics and physics. ...

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In Search of a Label for the Russian Media System

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pp. 41-62

The Soviet Union presented a clear, coherent, and distinct media model in line with its general political, economic, and ideological model. It was labeled the communist model, the Soviet model, or the Marxist model. It was characterized by state (and party) ownership, centralization, partisan journalism, and (ideological) censorship. ...

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Introducing Turkey to the Three Media System Models: The Content of TV News in Eleven Countries

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pp. 63-76

The influence of media systems, shaped within the historical, cultural, and political contexts of separate countries, is important for understanding political communication in a national context, in addition to being a necessary variable in any comparative study of political communication involving Western countries. To study the way the news media deal with politics and political actors, the three models of Hallin and Mancini (2004) constitute a good starting point for hypotheses. ...

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A Perspective from the South: Triggers and Signs of Change

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pp. 77-95

Unlike any of the 18 countries used in Hallin and Mancini’s Comparing Media Systems paradigm, South Africa has recently experienced dramatic, profound change in both its political system and its media sector. Indeed, if there is one defining characteristic of the South African media market over the 13 years since the country’s transition from apartheid to democracy, change is probably it. ...

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The Reform of the Public Radio and Television System in the United Kingdom and in Spain (2004–2007): A Comparative Analysis

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pp. 97-114

The broadcasting industry is undergoing major transformations, resulting from a growing tendency towards liberalization and commercialization in this sector as well as technological convergence. Within this context the meaning of public radio and television, or, to be more specific, the notion of a public service within the framework of Europe’s Information Society, has become a focal point of debate (Council of Europe 2006). ...

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Public Service Broadcasting in Ukraine: To Be or Not to Be?

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pp. 115-126

What preconditions must exist to allow the introduction of public service broadcasting? According to the principles of the World Radio and Television Council, genuine public service broadcasting has four core elements (Price and Raboy 2001, 5ff.):1 ...

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Actors, Evolution, and Production Models in the Commodification of Spanish Television

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pp. 127-151

Between 1989 and 2000, Spain’s television system went from being publicly owned to market-based. The public system consisted of two national channels (TVE1 and La 2) and eight regional channels. In 2000 the switch to a market model resulted in more than 100 national channels based on several different technologies—two public channels, four free ...

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The Global Journalist: Are Professional Structures Being Flattened?

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pp. 153-170

A fundamental research question in the social sciences is whether human behavior is unique in every new instant or instead follows universal laws, meaning that it repeats itself and can thus be predicted. This is true of both psychology and communications, for both the social behavior of people in situations of emotional stress and journalists who have to choose what is to become ...

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Czech Journalists after the Collapse of the Old Media System: Looking for a New Professional Self-Image

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pp. 171-194

Over the past two decades, economic and technological rationalization in journalistic performance has accelerated. The rapid rise of new information and communications technologies, along with growing economic and cultural globalization, significantly amplified the commercialization process of the whole media sector. As a result, the professional self-image of journalists has changed. ...

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Preserving Journalism

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pp. 195-208

Theorists agree that critical and transparent communication is essential for any modern state. To a great extent this role (of a watchdog or a fourth estate) has been delegated to journalism. But in these neoliberal times, media systems are dominated by private capital. ...

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Main Professional Dilemmas of Journalists in Poland

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pp. 209-231

The main professional dilemmas of journalists are shaped by their role and place in the media system. Therefore they reflect wider economic and political conditions. There are also numerous contradictions in the very essence of broadcasting and publishing activity among the state, the publisher, journalist, and the citizens. ...

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Comparing Media Systems and Media Content: Online Newspapers in Ten Eastern and Western European Countries

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pp. 233-260

How similar or different are journalism cultures in Europe today? Are we witnessing the emergence of a homogeneous Western style of journalism based on an Anglo-American model? Or do national traditions of journalism persist? Can we identify groups of countries in Europe with similar journalism styles? ...

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Political or Commercial Interests? Poland’s Axel Springer Tabloid, Fakt, and Its Coverage of Germany

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pp. 261-282

When Axel Springer Polska, the Polish branch of the German publishing house Axel Springer, announced the introduction of a new daily in the beginning of 2003, the Polish media scene took notice. Axel Springer Polska had already been successful in different segments of the Polish print media market with its approximately 30 magazines and was considered one of the most powerful publishing houses in post-communist Poland.1 ...

Contributors

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pp. 283-288

Index

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pp. 289-290

back cover

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E-ISBN-13: 9786155211898
Print-ISBN-13: 9789639776548

Page Count: 306
Publication Year: 2010