Transforming Peasants, Property and Power
The collectivization of agriculture in Romania, 1949–1962
Publication Year: 2009
Published by: Central European University Press
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The present volume is the result of an interdisciplinary collaborative project entitled Transforming Property, Persons, and State: Collectivization in Romania, 1949â 1962, which we initiated in 1998. The project was the fruit of the extensive research each of us had conducted separately over more than three decades; we...
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The collectivization of agriculture performed a central role in the process of reconfiguring the political regime and property relations in communist Romania, and more generally in Eastern Europe. Whereas the nationalization of industry and finance was carried out in a relatively short period of time (1948â1952), the...
PART ONE: The Collectivization of Agriculture: General Aspects
The First Wave of the Collectivization Campaign: Central Policies and Their Regional Implementation (1949â1953)
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The first wave of collectivization in Romania took place from 1949 to 1953, and was characterized by conflicting policy lines emanating from Bucharest, which produced both aggressive advances and dramatic retreats throughout the campaign. This paper will outline what appear to be the five discernible stages of this...
The Final Offensive: âThe Socialist Transformation of Agricultureâ from Slogans to Reality (1953â1962)
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This chapter addresses the ways in which the higher echelons of the Romanian communist leadership planned and carried out collectivization between 1953, the year of Stalinâs death, and 1962, the year that marked the end of collectivization. My research relies largely on archival data from the Central Historical National...
Law and Propaganda: Rural Land Ownership, Collectivization and Socialist Property in Romania
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The other studies in this book, as well as in post-communist academic literature, amply illustrate the realities of collectivization of agriculture in Romania in the period from 1949â1962: confiscatory taxation of private peasants; mandatory agricultural quotas; prosecution and destruction of those designated as...
PART TWO: Center and Periphery in the Collectivization Campaign
âConstanÅ£a, The First Collectivized Regionâ: Soviet Geo-Political Interests and National and Regional Factors in the Collectivization of Dobrogea (1949â1962)
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On October 18, 1957, the Agerpress news wire agency and national newspapers such as ScÃ®nteia (The Spark), ScÃ®nteia Tineretului (The Young Peopleâs Spark), Dobrogea NouÄ (New Dobrogea) and Drumul Socialismului (The Socialist Path) announced the successful completion of collectivization in the ConstanÅ£a...
The Role of Ethnicity in the Collectivization of Tomnatic/Triebswetter (Banat Region) (1949â1956)
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Any cross-regional analysis of collectivization in Romania ought to be concerned with the impact of local specificities on the strategies employed by the Party, as well as on the timing and pace of collectivization. Ecological, socioeconomic, and historical particulars left their mark on the way the âsocialist transformation...
Creating Communist Authority: Class Warfare and Collectivization in Ieud (MaramureÅ Region)
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Collectivization was the first mass action through which Romaniaâs young communist regime initiated its radical agenda of social, political, and economic transformation. To that end, the Party promoted class warfare to achieve the inversion of spatial, symbolic, and social relations. Ieud, a community then...
Collectivization Policies in the Cluj Region: The Aiud and Turda Districts
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To paraphrase Voltaire, we should judge peopleâs intelligence by the questions they ask. The quotation above, excerpted from an official query sent by the President of the Peopleâs Council of the village of Rimetea to the authorities of the Turda district, is illustrative of how communist authorities thought...
Collectivization in the Odorhei District (The Hungarian Autonomous Region)
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Historians from Hungary and Romania have generally neglected the postwar social history of ethnic Hungarians in Transylvania. As a consequence, research on the collectivization of areas inhabited by this ethnic group is barely nascent. There is no theoretical or empirical academic literature to speak...
Collectivization and Resistance in the Shepherding Village of Poiana Sibiului (Sibiu Region)
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The village that is the focus of this paper, Poiana Sibiului, has been known the length and breadth of Romania for at least two decades, if not longer. This is because of their sale of cheese in markets across the country, and perhaps in part due to extremely wide scale of the transhumance practiced by its...
Persuasion, Delay and Coercion. Late Collectivization in Northern Moldova: The Case of Darabani (Suceava Region)
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As Romania was the last country in the Soviet bloc to complete collectivization, so the region of Suceava (which included Bukovina and the extreme northern part of Moldavia) was the last Romanian region to officially mark completion, in March of 1962. Why was Suceava so delayed? There are three...
PART THREE: Collectivization and the Transformation of Social Relations
Exploiters Old and New: Making and Unmaking âRich Peasantsâ in Aurel Vlaicu (Hunedoara Region)
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The relationship between peasants and the state has long been a central topic in analyzing agrarian societies, such as Romaniaâs in the first half of the twentieth century. Important elements in this relationship include the balance of political forces in the state (understood as a collection of groupings having...
Revolution in Bits and Pieces: Collectivization in Southern Romania (Craiova Region)
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Early morning: exuberant villagers go out from their courtyards, happy to begin a new workday. The weather is good and the fiddlers play briskly. In a swift display of organization, cows are gathered into herds and headed towards pasture. Upon seeing the cars transporting villagers to the fields, the most...
Persuasion Techniques and Community Reactions in Corund (the Hungarian Autonomous Region)
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Was the change in property regime as straightforward and uneventful as this 59 year-old man claimed? Did everything really go so smoothly? It is true that there were no bitter conflicts, nor were there public trials or atrocities. The planners of collectivization did not refer to Corund...
âNever Leave âtil Tomorrow What You Can Do Today!â* A Case Study of a Model Collective Farm: âNew Lifeâ SÃ¢ntana (Arad Region)
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This case study examines the collectivization process in the village of SÃ¢ntana, located in the Arad Plain of western Romania. SÃ¢ntana presents an interesting if atypical study because the first collective farm there, designated a âmodel collective farm,â was a success both in the short and long term, and...
âHere in Reviga, There Was Nobody to Wage the Class Struggleâ: Collectivization in Reviga, BÄrÄgan Plain (Bucharest Region)
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This paper undertakes a case study of collectivization in the commune of Reviga, located in IalomiÅ£a county, and in the larger BÄrÄgan region. First, I will describe several characteristics situating the BÄrÄgan region historically and culturally, since that context played an important role in Revigaâs emergence...
One Step Back, Two Steps Forward: Institutionalizing the Party-State and Collective Property in Two Romanian Villages (GalaÅ£i Region)
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During the second half of 1957, despite the violent methods employed by the so-called âpersuasionâ (or collectivization) teams, which mainly consisted of industrial workers and Party activists, collectivization in the GalaÅ£i region met strong peasant resistance. In this region, peasants took control...
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This book has provided 17 papers on collectivization in Romania, ranging from broad national-level overviews to case studies of small villages. Based on interdisciplinary theoretical perspectives and employing rich empirical material, the book contributes to understanding collectivization in...
General Bibliography on the Collectivization of Agriculture in Romania
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The Communist Take-Over and Land Collectivization in Romania: Chronology of Events, 1945â1962
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List of Abbreviations
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Glossary of Terms
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Page Count: 554
Publication Year: 2009