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Kalmykia in Russia's Past and Present National Policies and Administrative System

Konstantin N. Maksimov

Publication Year: 2008

Kalmykia is a constituent of the Russian Federation that shaped and has been developing within Russia for several centuries. Kalmykia was incorporated into the Russian state in the early second half of the 17 th century, it was officially recognized by the Russian authorities and constituted as an ethno-political entity in the form of feudal khanate with the status of a virtually autonomous unit. The Kalmyk Khanate’s status as a largely self-ruling area within the Russian Empire gradually transformed into the status of a regular administrative territory under the Astrakhan governor. It received the status of a Republic from Stalin. Maksimov examines issues of interrelations between the Kalmyk people and Russia before and after the Kalmyks’ accession to the Russian state. Analyzes the Soviet national policy and to the destiny of Kalmykia under the communist regime. The legal status of this republic and its development under the new Russian federalism are discussed in great details.

Published by: Central European University Press


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p. 1-1

Title page, copyright page

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pp. 2-5

Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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pp. vii-xiv

The Russian Federation is one of the world’s largest multiethnic states, whose internal structure includes various entities. Its political division is based on territorial, ethnic, and territorial-ethnic principles. The Russian Federation is not a result of unionization of its members by virtue of agreement or treaty. ...

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1. Russia’s Policy Towards Kalmyks (Late 16th–mid-17th Centuries)

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pp. 1-54

The process of establishing a centralized Russian state, which was formed as a multinational state on a multiethnic basis, was over in the second half of the 16th century. While before the middle of the 16th century the Russian state was joined by the Karelians, Komi, Khanty, Meshchera, Mordovians, Udmurts, and other peoples, ...

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2. The Kalmyk Khanate as a Part of Russia (mid-17th–Second Half of 18th Centuries)

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pp. 55-120

The objective factors of Kalmyks’ social, political, state, and economic development finally resulted in the formation of the national state in the form of a khanate within Russia. Sharing the opinion expressed by M.L. Kichikov, we can say that the actual acknowledgment and formation of the Kalmyk Khanate took place in 1664 ...

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3. Kalmykia’s Status in the Russian Empire (Late 18th–Early 20th Centuries)

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pp. 121-198

When a substantial part of Kalmyks left for Dzungaria in late 1771, the political map of the Kalmyk steppe underwent fundamental changes. The abolishment of the Kalmyk Khanate meant the liquidation of the Kalmyk national statehood, and—to use contemporary terms—cancellation of Kalmykia’s status of a constituent member of Russia. ...

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4. The Kalmyk Soviet Autonomous Oblast in the Years of Socialism Building (1917-1935)

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pp. 199-270

The October Revolution of 1917 and Soviet power opened a new page in the history of Kalmykia and its statehood. Modern history turned out to be complicated and controversial—with both positive and negative aspects. It was directly related to the nationalities policy of Bolsheviks, which involved departures from their program and ideology ...

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5. The Kalmyk Soviet Autonomous Republic Under Totalitarianism and During the Stagnation Period

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pp. 271-346

By the early 1930s, the bureaucratic centralization induced by the party was drawing to an end. Only formal elements of federalism remained from the federal state, and Stalin’s repressive policy was actively imposed. However, the process of the Soviet national and state building and resolution of national problems were vigorously simulated. ...

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6. Kalmykia Within the New Russian Federal System

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pp. 347-426

As the crisis of the Soviet system aggravated, social and interethnic controversies also intensified. In the late 1980s, the CPSU made some attempts to address these disturbing processes. Having discussed the issues related to interethnic relations, the 19th party conference, which was held on June 28–July 1, 1988, drafted an action program in this sphere. ...

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pp. 427-430

A group of Oirats (Kalmyks), which moved to the north-west toward Russia from the Dzungaria whose territorial unity had disrupted, eventually constituted the backbone population group in a newly developing form of the Kalmyk statehood that was typical of the feudal division period. ...

Index of Proper Names

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pp. 431-440


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pp. 456-463

Back cover

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p. 464-464

E-ISBN-13: 9786155211492
Print-ISBN-13: 9789639776173

Page Count: 464
Publication Year: 2008

Edition: first