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Biographical Dictionary of Women’s Movements and Feminisms

Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe, 19th and 20th Centuries

Edited francisca DeHaan, Anna Loutfi

Publication Year: 1920

Contains 150 expertly-researched biographical portraits (with pictures) of women and men who were active in, or part of, women's movements and feminisms in 22 countries in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. Thus it challenges the widely-held belief that there was no feminism in this part of Europe. The biographical portraits not only show that feminists existed here, but also that they were widespread and diverse, and included Romanian princesses, Serbian philosophers and peasants, Latvian and Slovakian novelists, Albanian teachers, Hungarian Catholic social workers, Austrian factory workers, Bulgarian feminist scientists and socialist feminists, Russian radicals and philanthropists, Turkish republican leftist political activists and nationalists, internationally recognized Greek feminist leaders, and so on-women, and some men, from all walks of life. Their stories together constitute a rich tapestry of feminist activity, rejecting the notion that either there was no feminism here, or that it was 'imported from the West.' Women in every society and in every generation protest gender injustice, and any suggestion to the contrary is a denial of the intelligence and human agency of countless women and men, including those featured in this Biographical Dictionary. The biographies not only provide a window onto the historical background of contemporary feminism (thus giving present-day women's movements the 'historical support' that they need and are entitled to), in some cases they demonstrate explicitly the historical continuities between feminisms past and present.

Published by: Central European University Press


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pp. 1-2

Title page

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p. 3-3

Copyright page

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p. 4-4

Table of Contents

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pp. iv-x

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pp. xi-xii

Making this Biographical Dictionary was a complex but also highly rewarding task. Now that the book is in its final stage, it is a pleasure to thank all those who have helped us with it. First Susan Zimmermann, who suggested to one of us a project in which students might cooperate: a calendar containing biographical portraits of feminists from Central, Eastern..

Advisory Board Members (Country Coordinators)

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pp. xi-xii

Often Used Abbreviations and Symbols Used in the Lists of Sources; Maps

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pp. xiv-xv

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pp. 1-15

This book describes the lives, works and aspirations of more than 150 women and men who were active in, or part of, women’s movements and feminisms in 22 countries in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe. In doing so, it challenges the widely held belief that there was no feminism in this part of Europe. Taken together, the biographical portraits...

Subjects per Country

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pp. 16-20

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Fatma Aliye (1862-1936)

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pp. 21-24

Fatma Aliye was born on 26 October 1862 into a mansion in Istanbul. Her father, Ahmet Cevdet Pasha (1822–1895), was an influential bureaucrat of the Ottoman State, a lawyer and a historian. Her mother was Adviye...

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Apponyi, Countess, Mrs Count Albert Apponyi, born Countess Clotilde, Klotild Dietrichstein- Mensdorff-Pouilly (1867-1942)

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pp. 25-29

Countess Dietrichstein-Mensdorff-Pouilly was born on 23 December 1867 in Vienna, the daughter of Catholic parents: Count Alexander Mensdorff-Pouilly, later also Prince of Dietrichstein zu Nikolsburg, high-ranking member of the Austrian military and statesman...

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ARIAN, Praskov’ia Naumovna Belenkaia (1864/5–1949)

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pp. 30-32

Praskov’ia Naumovna Belenkaia was born on 12 April 1864 or 1865 (her Moscow archive lists her date of birth as 1865 but the autobiographical statement in her St Petersburg archive lists it as 1864), to a Jewish family in St Petersburg, probably of the merchant class since Jewish residence in the Imperial capital was strictly limited. Admitted to the physics...

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ARMAND, Inessa-Elizaveta Fiodorovna (1874-920)

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pp. 33-37

Inessa Armand was born Inessa Steffen in Paris on 26 April 1874, the illegitimate child of Theodore Steffen, a British opera singer, and Nathalie Vil’d, a French actress. She grew up speaking French and English and later learned Russian, German and Polish. After her...

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ASPAZIJA (Elza Rozenberga, in marriage Pliekša-ne) (1865–1943)

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pp. 37-40

Elza Rozenberga was born on 16 March 1865 at the farmstead Za¸lenieku Daukšas. Her parents were the landowner Da–vis Rozenbergs-Rozenvalds and his wife Grieta. Elza had two brothers, Kristaps and Zamue-ls, and one sister, Dora. The pen-name ‘Aspazija’ came from Elza’s fascination with the Austrian...

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ATANASIJEVIĆ, Ksenija (1894–1981)

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pp. 41-43

Ksenija Atanasijević was born on 5 February 1894 in Belgrade. Her mother died during childbirth, a tragedy affecting Ksenija’s life in later years. Her father, from a well-off family, was the director of the State Hospital in Belgrade. He passed away when she was...

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BACHMANN, Ingeborg (1926–1973)

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pp. 44-47

Ingeborg Bachmann was born in Klagenfurt in the Austrian state of Carinthia on 25 June 1926. Her mother, Olga Bachmann, born Haas (1901–1998), came originally from Heidenreichstein in Lower Austria, where her family owned a knitwear factory. Her father,...

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BAIULESCU, Maria (1860–1941)

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pp. 48-50

Daughter of Orthodox Archpriest (Protopop) Bartolomeu (1831-1909) and Elena Baiulescu, Maria Baiulescu grew up in an intellectual family in the relatively prosperous region of Brasov and received an exceptionally good education for a Romanian woman at the time. After graduating from the Girls French Institute...

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pp. 51-53

Jelica Belović was born in Osijek, Croatia on 25 February 1870, into an ethnically mixed middle-class family of teachers. Josip, her Croatian-born father of Montenegrin descent, taught at the Osijek gymnasium. Her Croatian-born mother Katerina...

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BENICZKY, Hermin (Mrs Pál Veres) (1815–1895)

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pp. 54-57

On 13 December 1815, Hermin Beniczky was born in Losonc, Nógrád County (today Lučenec, central Slovakia) and baptized in the local Lutheran church. Hermin Beniczky’s father, Pál Beniczky (died 1816), was a Nógrád landowner from a high ranking...

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BISCHITZ, Johanna (born Hani Fischer, later Johanna Hevesi Bischitz) (1827–1898)

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pp. 58-61

Johanna Bischitz was born Hani Fischer in the Hungarian town of Tata (Komárom County) in 1827, the third of ten children of Moritz (Mór) Fischer (1799–1880), director and owner of the world-famous ‘Herend’ porcelain factory, and Mária Salzer...

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BLAGOEVA, Vela (1858–1921)

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pp. 62-65

On 29 September 1858, Vela Blagoeva was born Victoria Atanasova Zhivkova in Turnovo, an old town at the foot of the Balkan mountains, the last capital of the Bulgarian medieval kingdom, a prosperous economic and cultural center during the nineteenth-century...

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pp. 66-69

Kostadina Bojadjieva was born in Ohrid in 1880, the only child of Eftim Nastev Bojadjiev, a wealthy Orthodox Christian merchant from Ohrid. Her mother probably died very young (no data on her exists). Kostadina completed her primary education in Ohrid and her secondary education in Bulgaria, teaching at a primary school for boys and girls in Ohrid from around the turn of the century. In the late nineteenth century...

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BORTKEVIČIENE˙, Felicija (1873-1945)

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pp. 70-75

Felicija Bortkevičien˙e was born Felicija Povickait˙e on 1 September 1873 on the Linkaučiai Estate in Panev˙ežys County (in the district of Krekenava), into a noble family. Her parents, evicted from the estate by the Russian government for their part in the rebellion...

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BOTEZ, Calypso (1880-)

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pp. 76-79

Born in 1880, in the Moldovan city of Bacău, Calypso Botez completed a course of study in history and philosophy at the University of Iaşi, going on to become Principal of the Lyceum for girls in Galaţi. There she married a prominent local lawyer, Corneliu Botez, an active supporter of women’s rights...

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BUDZIŃSKA-TYLICKA, Justyna (1867-1936)

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pp. 80-84

Justyna Budzińska was born on 12 September 1867 in Suwałki (in numerous sources an incorrect place of birth is given: Łomża), to a family of many children. Her mother’s name was Jadwiga (no other data available). Her father, Alfons, a veterinary surgeon, was deported to Siberia for his involvement...

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BUJWIDOWA, Kazimiera (1867-1932)

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pp. 85-88

Kazimiera Bujwidowa (born Klimontowicz) was born on 16 October 1867 in Warsaw. She was the only child of Ludwika (nee Szczęśniewska) and Kazimierz Klimontowicz, the latter from a lower noble family of Lithuanian origin. Although her parents were...

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CANTACUZINO, Princess Alexandrina (1876-1944)

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pp. 89-94

Alexandrina (Didina) Cantacuzino (born Pallady) was born on 20 September 1876 in Ciocăneşti (Ilfov county, near Bucharest), a village on her family’s estate. Both her parents were from old boyar families. Alexandrina’s father, Theodor Pallady (1853– 1916), was a career officer—a member of a Moldavian boyar family first documented in the twelfth century. In 1874, he married Alexandrina Kreţulescu (1848–1881), an heiress from a well-known, wealthy Wallachian boyar family. Together they had four children but only Alexandrina...

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CHEKHOVA, Mariia Aleksandrovna Argamakova (1866-“1934)

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pp. 95-98

Mariia Chekhova was born Mariia Argamakova on 18 January 1866, into a gentry family in St Petersburg. Both her maternal and paternal grandfathers were teachers, as was her father, Aleksandr Pavlovich Argamakov, who taught at St Petersburg’s First Military Gimnazium (high school). Mariia had...

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ÇOBA, Shaqe (Marie) (1875-1954)

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pp. 99-101

Shaqe (Marie) Çoba was born in Shkodra in 1875 to the distinguished Shiroka family, traditionally active in the social life of the city. Her father’s name was Zef Shiroka. She had one brother, Loro, and one sister whose name, like that of her mother, is...

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DASZYŃSKA-GOLIŃSKA, Zofia (1866–1934)

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pp. 102-105

Zofia Daszyńska-Golińska (nee Poznańska) was born in Warsaw on 6 August 1866, to an impoverished landowning family. Her parents, Damian Poznański— an agronomist and estate administrator— and Aniela born Puternicka (no further data), created an atmosphere conducive to intellectual development.....

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DEJANOVIĆ (Dejanovich), Draga (born Dimitrijević) (1840–1871)

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pp. 106-108

Draga Dimitrijević was born on 18 August 1840 in Stara Kanjiža (Habsburg Monarchy, now in Serbia). Her parents were Živojin and Sofija Dimitrijević. As the daughter of a well-to-do lawyer, Draga received an education in her native town and, later, at the Vinčikov Institute in Timisoara (today in Romania). Due to her poor health (she had problems...

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DERVİŞ, Suat (Saadet Baraner) (1905-1972)

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pp. 109-113

Suat Derviş was born in 1905 (1904 according to some sources), to an aristocratic family in Istanbul. Her father, gynecologist İsmail Derviş (?–1932), was a professor at the Medical Faculty of Istanbul University and the son of chemist Müşir Derviş Pasha and his second wife, Şevkidil. Suat Derviş’...

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DESPOT, Blaženka (1930–2001)

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pp. 114-117

Blaženka Despot (nee Lovrić) was born on 9 January 1930 in Zagreb (then the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, today Croatia), to a typical middle-class Zagreb family—the eldest child of Dr Stjepan and Melanija Lovrić. Her father held a Ph.D. in law and for many years was the director...

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DJIONAT, Elena (1888–?)

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pp. 118-119

Born in 1888 in the village of Bozieni, at that time part of the Russian Empire, Djionat pursued a career in medicine at the University of Odessa but only completed two years of study. She became a teacher and went on to become Principal at the Princess Elena Primary School in Chişhinău in 1919, after Bessarabia...

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EDİB ADIVAR, Halide (1884–1964)

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pp. 120-123

Halide Edib was born in Istanbul in 1884 and brought up in an Ottoman mansion house, for the most part by her grandmother (a member of the Mevlevi sufi order). Her mother, Fatma Bedirfem Hanım, died of tuberculosis when Halide was a child. Her father, Edib Bey, a secretary of Sultan Abdülhamid...

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ENGELGARDT, Anna (1838–1903)

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pp. 124-126

Anna Engelgardt (nee Makarova) was born on 2 June 1838 in the village of Aleksandrovka in the Kostroma province of the Russian Empire. Her father, Nikolai Makarov (1810–1890), was a member of the gentry and owned a small estate. In addition to being a famous Russian lexicographer— author...

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EZERA, Regına (born Šamreto) (1930–2002)

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pp. 127-130

Regı-na Šamreto was born on 20 December 1930, into a working-class family in Riga. Her father, Robert Šamreto, was a carpenter. Her mother, Lu - cija Šamreto, was a housewife who had been educated at Riga Polish gymnasium and trained as a nurse after World War II. Regina’s family members lived in a small flat in a working- class district of...

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FICKERT, Auguste (1855-1910)

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pp. 131-134

Auguste Fickert (also known as Gusti) was born on 25 May 1855 in Vienna. Her mother, Louise Fickert (born Luhde, died 1907), was a housewife; her father, Wilhelm Fickert (d. 1881), was a foreman at the Court and State printers. They had two daughters (Auguste and Marianne) and two sons (Emil and Willy). Two of Auguste Fickert’s siblings...

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FILOSOFOVA, Anna Pavlovna, born Diaghileva (1837–1912)...

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pp. 135-139

Anna Pavlovna Diaghileva was born on 5 April 1837 into a wealthy and longstanding noble family in St Petersburg. Her father, Pavel Dmitrievich Diaghilev (1808–1883), was a successful official at the Ministry of Finance who retired in 1850 and started his own distillery business at his family estate in Perm. Around 1855, he became obsessively religious and Anna’s mother, his wife Anna Ivanovna...

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FRUMKIN, Esther (real name Malka Lifschitz, Esfir’ Frumkina in Russian, known as Esther Frumkin in English) (1880–1943)

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pp. 140-143

Throughout her notorious—often celebrated—career, Esther Frumkin led a life full of paradoxes. Criticized for opposing the study and popularization of Yiddish at a 1908 conference in Czernowitz (in Ukrainian Bukovina, then part of the Austro- Hungarian Empire), she later embraced the Bolshevik Revolution and lobbied for Yiddish as the revolutionary language of Jews. She led virulent anti-religious campaigns in the 1920s as the leader of the...

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GALDIKIENE˙, Magdalena (1891–1979)

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pp. 144-147

Magdalena Galdikien˙e (maiden name Draugelyt˙e) was born on 26 September 1891 in the village of Bardauskai, in Vilkaviškis County. Her father, Petras Draugelis (1849–1914), was a primary school teacher who illegally distributed Lithuanian books (Lithuanian Latin script books were prohibited by the tsarist regime from 1864 to 1904). Her mother...

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GÁRDOS, Mária (Mariska Gárdos, Mrs György Pintér, likely born M. Grünfeld) (1885–1973)

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pp. 148-152

Mariska Gárdos was born on 1 May 1885 (one source claims 1 October 1884), in Nagyberény, Hungary, south of Lake Balaton. She was one of many children, yet only three of her siblings reached adulthood: her much younger sister Frida (born mid- 1890s—died in a Soviet prison around 1926) and her elder sister and brother Giza and Sándor (data unknown). Her father, originally a tailor’s assistant, moved to Budapest with his family in 1886, where he became a casual worker and canvas repairer in the Óbuda Dockyard Factory. Mariska’s...

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GEŐCZE, Sarolta (1862–1928)

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pp. 153-157

Sarolta Geőcze was born on 27 December 1862, in Bacska (Zemplén County, named Bačka in 1920; today in Slovakia), into a middle-class, intellectual, Catholic family. Her mother, Erzsébet Bertha (died 1869), was from the small town of Felsőőr (today Oberwart, Austria). Her father, Bertalan Geőcze (dates of birth and death...

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GJIKA, Elena (Elena Ghica, pen-name DORA D’ISTRIA) (1828?–1888?)

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pp. 158-161

Elena Gjika was probably born on 28 February 1828. While some of her biographers give Bucharest or Constanta (a city on the Black Sea, currently in Romania) as her birthplace, in the first volume of her book Les femmes en Orient, published in Zurich in 1859, Elena includes a letter to one of her...

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GLÜCKLICH, Vilma (1872–1927)

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pp. 162-165

Vilma Glücklich was born on 9 August 1872, in Vágujhely (Nové Mesto, today Slovakia) into a Jewish family, the youngest of four children (including a brother named Emil). Her father was a high school teacher, her mother from an educated family. Vilma grew up in Budapest. After completing lower-...

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GREGOROVÁ, Hana (1885–1958)

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pp. 166-168

Hana Gregorová was born Anna Božena Lilgová on 30 January 1885, to a middle-class family in the town of Turčiansky Svätý Martin (T. Sv. Martin) in northern Slovakia, at that time a center of national culture. Her father Jan Lilge (d. 1900) was a dyer. Her mother Maria, born Jamnická (1849–1926) was....

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GUREVICH, Liubov’ Iakovlevna (1866–1940)

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pp. 169-172

Liubov’ Gurevich was born in St Petersburg on 20 October 1866. She grew up in a progressive urban intellectual household with a mixed social background. Her mother, Liubov’ Ivanovna Il’ina, was of the gentry class. The sister of the writer Ekaterina Tsekina-Zhukovskaia, she encouraged her daughter to take an interest in literature. Her father...

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HAINISCH, Marianne (1839–1936)

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pp. 173-177

Marianne Hainisch (nee Perger) was born on 25 March 1839 in Baden, a summer resort close to Vienna. Her father Josef Perger (1806–1886), a merchant, owned a metal plant and a cotton mill in Hirtenberg, Lower Austria. Marianne Hainisch’s memories of her mother Maria (1820–1903), with whom she...

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HORÁKOVÁ, Milada (1901–1950)

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pp. 178-181

Milada Horáková, maiden name Králová, was born in Prague on 25 December 1901, to a middle-class, patriotic Czech family. Her parents, Čeněk Král (1869– 1955) and Anna Králová, maiden name Velíšková (1875–1933), had four children (Marta, Milada, Jiří and Věra). Her father was a pencil factory owner in České Budějovice; her mother took...

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IVANOVA, Dimitrana (1881–1960)

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pp. 182-184

Dimitrana Ivanova (born Petrova) was born on 1 February 1881 into a middleclass family in the town of Rousse, a prosperous commercial and business center with a cosmopolitan outlook located on the river Danube. Her parents, the craftsman and trader Petur Drumev and Stanka pop Todorova (about whom nothing...

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JARNEVIĆ, Dragojla (1812–1875)

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pp. 185-188

Dragojla Jarnević was born on 4 January 1812, in the prosperous merchant town of Karlovac (also known in German as Karlstadt), a military center fifty km southwest of Zagreb, close to the Habsburg military border. She was baptized in the Catholic Church as Carolina and also had a nickname...

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JESENSKÁ, Milena (1896–1944)

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pp. 189-191

Milena Jesenská was born on 10 August 1896 in Prague. Her father, Jan Jesenský, a professor of dentistry at the Faculty of Medicine of Charles University, was one of the top professionals in his field and also a prominent member of Czech society in Prague. Milena Jesenská’s childhood and youth were marked both by the illness of her mother (also Milena, born Hejzlarová), who...

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JOVANOVIĆ, Biljana (1953–1996)

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pp. 192-194

Biljana Jovanović was born in Belgrade on 28 January 1953. Her father, Batrić Jovanović, was a politician and her mother, Olga Jovanović, a journalist. She had a brother named Pavle Jovanović and a sister named Ana Jovanović. The family lived in Belgrade, where Biljana...

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JURIĆ, Marija (1873–1957)

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pp. 195-199

Marija Jurić, known by her pseudonym ‘Zagorka,’ was born on 2 March 1873 on the Negovac estate near the city of Križevci. She was given the name Marianna and baptized in a Roman Catholic Church on 3 March 1873. Her mother, Josipa Domin, and father, Ivan Jurić (data unknown), were wealthy and had three children...

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KÄER-KINGISEPP, Elise (1901–1989)

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pp. 200-203

Elise Käer was born on 3 October 1901 in the vicinity of Tartu (in Metsaküla, Estonia) the first of the two daughters of farmers Gustav Käer (1861– 1932) and Liisa (born Rosin) Käer (1878–1977). [Elise’s sister Helene Käer (born 1906), married name Helene Sultson, is a musician living...

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KAIJA, Ivande (born Antonija Millere-Meldere, married name Antonija Lu- kina) (1876–1941)

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pp. 204-206

Ivande Kaija (Antonija Millere-Meldere) was born on 12 October 1876 in Jumpravmuiža, to middle-class parents. Her father, Mik, elis Millers-Melders, was originally a tradesman. He made a fortune and became a proprietor and landlord in Riga, where, in 1879, the family settled in the pleasant suburban district...

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KAL’MANOVICH, Anna Andreevna (dates of birth and death unknown)

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pp. 207-209

Anna Andreevna Kal’manovich (personal and family data unknown) had a public career which by the 1905 Russian Revolution had moved from philanthropy in the 1890s to radical feminism. In 1893, she founded the Evreiskoe Popechitel’stvo o Bol’nykh (Saratov Hebrew Society for the Care of the Sick), remaining its President until 1904. She also founded a children’s committee and served as liaison to the local society for poor relief before becoming immersed in feminist activities. She gave her first public speech—a report on the...

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KALNIN¸A, Klara (born Veilande) (1874–1964)

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pp. 210-212

Anna-Luize Kla-ra Veilande was born in Vanci on 24 February 1874, into a family of farmers. She became interested in women’s emancipation and rights early on while a student at the Doroteja (fourgrade) school for girls in Jelgava, which she attended from 1887 to 1890. The language of instruction at the school was German; the teachers of the Baltic...

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KÁNYA (Kanya), Emilia; Mrs Mór Szegfi (1830–1905)

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pp. 213-216

Emilia Kánya was born on 10 November 1830 into a highly educated middleclass family in Pest-Ofen, Hungary. Little is known about her family background and early years. Her mother was Zsuzsanna Buro (no data); her father, Pál Kánya (1794–1876), was a teacher, later the director of a local Protestant secondary school and parish notary. Emilia received the same education as her father’s students and was taught French...

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KARACS, Teréz (1808–1892)

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pp. 217-221

Teréz Karacs was born on 18 April 1808 in Pest-Ofen, Hungary. Her family was highly educated and Protestant, of modest means. Her father, Ferenc Karacs (1770–1838), was an engineer and qualified engraver of maps and illustrations. Her mother, Éva Takács (1779– 1845), was a publicist and active participant in debates over...

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KARAMICHAILOVA, Elissaveta Ivanova (Kara-Michailova, Elizabeth) (1897–1968)

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pp. 222-225

Elissaveta Karamichailova was born on 22 August 1897 in Vienna, one of the three children of the Bulgarian surgeon Ivan Karamichailov (1866–1961) and Mary Slade, an English pianist born in Oxfordshire. The cultural atmosphere in the family was augmented by the presence of Ivan’s sister, Elena Karamichailova, the first Bulgarian post-impressionist...

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KARAVELOV, Lyuben Stoychev (1834–1879)

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pp. 226-229

Lyuben Karavelov was born in 1834 in the mountainous village of Koprivshtitsa, to Stoycho Karavelov, a well off trader, and Nedelya Doganova, a woman from a rich and educated family. Slightly literate, the parents educated the four boys of their seven children. Lyuben, the first-born, studied at the local monastery school and at the primary and middle...

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KARAVELOVA, Ekaterina (1860–1947)

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pp. 230-234

Ekaterina Karavelova (nee Peneva) was born on 21 October 1860 into a lower middle-class family in Rouschuk (now Rousse), then one of the biggest towns in the European part of the Ottoman Empire and the center of Tuna vilaet, an administrative unit. She was the youngest of the four children of Stoyanka...

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KARIMA, Anna (born Anna Todorova Velkova) (1871–1949)

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pp. 235-240

‘Anna Karima’ was the pseudonym of Anna Todorova Velkova (whose married name, from 1888 to 1903, was Janko Sakuzova). Other pseudonyms were ‘Vega,’ ‘Mamin,’ and ‘Samurov.’ She was born in 1871 in Berdjansk (Russia), the daughter of Stepanida Mouzhichenko, a Ukrainian woman whose sensitivity to...

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KAŠIKOVIĆ, Stoja (c.1865–?)

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pp. 241-243

Very little is known of Stoja Kašiković’s early childhood. She was born Stoja Zdjelarević in 1865 in Bosanski Novi, Bosnia, though the precise day and month of her birth are unknown. It is likely that she was orphaned at an early age because she did not know either of her birth parents’ names, only that she had been born to Bosnian Serbs and that her father had been a merchant. She had one brother named Simo, who eventually moved to Kovač in Slavonia to work as a blacksmith. Stoja Zdjelarević began her education...

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KOBRYNSKA, Natalia (born Ozarkevych) (1851–1920)

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pp. 244-247

Natalia Ozarkevych was born on 8 June 1851 in Beleluia, in the Halychyna Province of the Habsburg Monarchy (Galicia), to the Reverend Ivan Ozarkevych (1826–1903) and Teofilia Okunevska. She was the eldest of five children. At her death, the territory of her birth was being contested among Poles...

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KOBYLIANSKA, Olha (Kobylians’ka, Ol’ha) (1863–1942)

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pp. 248-252

Olha Kobylianska was born on 25 November 1863 in the town of Gura-Gumora in southern Bukovyna, a beautiful, mountainous and ethnically diverse region, then part of the Austro-Hungarian (Habsburg) Empire. Today, Bukovyna is located in Ukraine proper: it shares international borders with Romania and...

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KOLLONTAI, Alexandra (1872–1952)

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pp. 253-257

Alexandra Kollontai (nee Domontovich) was born on 1 April 1872 in St Petersburg, to a wealthy family, though her father and mother came from different social classes. Her father, Mikhail Domontovich (1830–1902), was a nobleman and officer whose family lineage went back to the thirteenth century. Her mother, Alexandra Domontovich (born Masalina; first married name Mravinskaya), was...

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KONOVA, Kina (1872-1952)

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pp. 258-261

Kina Konova was born as Kina Moutafova in September 1872 in the small town of Sevlievo. She had two brothers: Sava (1864–1943) and Hristo (1872–1942) (one of them a teacher, the other a well-known bookseller and printer in Sevlievo, both socialists). Kina Moutafova finished middle school in her native town and in 1889, graduated from the girls’ high school in Gabrovo, where she led the female high school-students’ organization. From 1889 to 1890, she worked as a teacher and became one of the founders (1889) of the socialist organization...

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KRÁSNOHORSKÁ, Eliška (born Alžběta Pechová) (1847–1926)

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pp. 262-266

Krásnohorská was born Alžběta Pechová in Prague on 18 November 1847, to craftsman Ondřej Pech (1802–1849?), who died when she was two years old, and Dora Vodvářková, who supported the talents of her five children, particularly their musical interests. Alžběta was the fourth child. Since her older brothers took care of her education and taught...

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KRONVALDE (born Roloff), Karolı-ne Liznete (1836–1913)

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pp. 267-268

Very little is known of Karolı-ne Kronvalde’s life and work, apart from the fact that she was the wife of Atis Kronvalds (1837–1875), a prominent leader of the Latvian nationalist movement in the 1870s. Much has been published on his life and work, yet very little has been published on his wife, Karolîne Kronvalde, one of the first spokeswomen for women’s...

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KRUPSKAIA, Nadezhda Konstantinovna (1869–1939)

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pp. 269-273

Nadezhda Krupskaia (Krupskaya) was born in Petersburg on 14 (26) February 1869. Her father was descended from the Polish nobility. Her grandfather fought with the Russian army in the War of 1812 and then settled in the Gubernia (province) of Kazan. Her...

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KUCZALSKA-REINSCHMIT (Reinschmidt), Paulina Jadwiga (1859–1921)

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pp. 274-277

Paulina Kuczalska-Reinschmit was born on 15 January 1859 in Warsaw, into a noble family. She grew up in the country, on estates in the Ukraine (Kośkowice in Volhynia and Bereźniaki). After the death of her father (date unknown), she moved to Warsaw with...

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KUSKOVA, Ekaterina Dmitrievna (born Esipova) (1869–1958)

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pp. 278-281

Ekaterina Dmitrievna Esipova was born on 8 December 1869 in the provincial Southern Ural capital of Ufa, the first of two children in her family. Her father, Dmitrii Petrovich Esipov (probably a member of Russia’s untitled nobility; date of birth unknown), taught language and literature in the local secondary...

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KVEDER, Zofka (first married name, Kveder-Jelovšek; second married name, Kveder-Demetrović) (1878–1926)

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pp. 282-285

Zofka Kveder was born on 22 April 1878 in Ljubljana (Slovenia), the first child of assistant railway conductor Janez Kveder (1846–1908) and Neža Kveder, born Legat (1851–1915). She spent her childhood in the country after her father— restless by nature and...

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LEICHTER, Käthe (1895–1942)

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pp. 286-289

Käthe Leichter was born Marianne Katharina Pick on 20 August 1895 in Vienna, into a bourgeois–liberal, intellectual and assimilated Jewish family familiar with enlightenment ideals of liberty, equality and social justice. Her parents were the attorney Dr. Josef Pick (1849– 1926), who came from a northern Bohemian textile factory family...

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LJOČIĆ (Ljotchich)-Milošević, Draga (1855–1926)

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pp. 290-292

Draga Ljočić was born in Šabac (Serbia) on 25 February 1855. She graduated from the Lyceum of Belgrade and was the first Serbian woman to be admitted (in 1872) to the Zurich Medical School. At that time her brother Đjura Ljočić, a prominent socialist and editor of the journal Radenik (The...

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MALINOVA, Julia (also Julie Malinoff) (1869–1953)

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pp. 293-295

Julia Malinova was born Jakovlevna Scheider, of Russian Jewish parents. She received her university education in France and Switzerland, where she became attracted to contemporary liberal ideas. No data exists regarding her parents or the life she led before moving to Bulgaria. She came to Sofia...

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MALINSKA-OSTAROVA GEORGI, Veselinka (1917–1988)

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pp. 296-300

Veselinka Malinska’s father, Georgi Kole Malinski (1878–1951), was born in Kumanovo and also lived in Tetovo (Macedonia), Vienna and Paris (in the latter two cities between 1913 and 1918). A merchant, photographer and social activist, he was an innovative, broad-minded and free-spirited man, the first Esperantist...

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MARÓTHY-ŠOLTÉSOVÁ, Elena (1855–1939)

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pp. 301-305

Elena Maróthy was born on 6 January 1855 in Krupina (upper Hungary, Austria- Hungary; today Slovakia), to Protestant pastor and poet Daniel Maróthy (1825– 1878) and Karolína Maróthy, born Hudecová (1834–1857). Shortly after the family moved to Ľuboreč (in the district of Novohrad), Elena’s...

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MASARYKOVÁ GARRIGUE, Charlotta (1850–1923)

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pp. 306-320

Charlotta Garrigue was born in Brooklyn, New York on 20 November 1850. Her father, Rudolf Garrigue (1822–1891), was of Huguenot descent, born in Kodan (Denmark). While working for the publisher Brockhouse in Leipzig as a young man, he had been sent to the United States to carry out market research there and had remained in New York...

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MAŠIOTIENE˙, Ona (1883–1949)

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pp. 311-315

Ona Mašiotien˙e born Ona Brazauskait ˙e (or Brzezowska; Brazauskait˙e is the Lithuanian version of the latter and this is how she always referred to herself) was born on 29 January 1883, into a noble family from Šlavenai (in the parish of Anykščiai, today northern Lithuania...

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MATEJCZUK, Vera (first married name, Maslouskaya; second married name, Karczeuskaya) (1896–1981)

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pp. 316-318

Vera Matejczuk was born on 24 March 1896 in Suprasl (now in Poland, then a Northwestern Province of the Russian Empire), into a poor peasant family—one of twelve children. She spent her childhood in the village of Aharodniczki, near Suprasl, where she attended an elementary school but could...

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MAYREDER, Rosa (1858-1938)

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pp. 319-323

Rosa Mayreder (nee Obermayer) was born in Vienna on 30 November 1858, and grew up in a family of thirteen children. Her father, Franz Obermayer (1811–1893), was the owner of the famous Winterbierhaus in Vienna. He embodied contemporary values, a mixture of patriarchal authority and liberal...

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MĘCZKOWSKA, Teodora (1870–1954)

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pp. 324-327

Teodora Maria Męczkowska (nee Oppman) was born on 5 September 1870 in Łowicz, a small town in the Polish Kingdom (under Russian partition). Her father, Jan Adolf Oppman, was the pastor of an Evangelical church; her mother, Teodora born Berlińska, was a teacher. In 1888, Teodora graduated...

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MEISSNER, Elena (1867?–1940?)

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pp. 328-330

Born Elena Buznea in the Moldavian city of Huşi in 1867(?), Meissner was one of the first female students to attend the University of Iaşi in the mid-1880s, where she graduated in literature. In 1905, she married Constantin Meissner (1854–1942), a prominent political...

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MELLER, Mrs Artur, Eugénia Miskolczy (1872–1944)

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pp. 331-335

Mrs Artur Meller was born Eugénia Miskolczy on 14 January 1872, into a Jewish family in Budapest, the capital (then undergoing unification) of Hungary. Her parents, who had married in 1870, were Adolf Miskolczy (Miskolci), a manufacturer (born 1839), and...

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MEVLAN CİVELEK, Ulviye (1893–1964)

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pp. 336-339

Ulviye Mevlan was a pioneering feminist in Ottoman society of the early 1900s, a time when social and political structures were undergoing important changes. Born in 1893, in Göreme, she was brought to the harem of the Ottoman Palace at the age of six where, like all the new incoming girls, she received her first education. Her family was Circassian, exiled...

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MILČINOVIĆ, Adela (1878–1968)

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pp. 340-343

Adela Milčinović (born Kamenić) was born on 14 January 1878 in the city of Sisak, the largest of the Croatian river ports, located along the rivers Sava and Kupa. Adela was the illegitimate daughter of Ludmila Kamenić (data unknown). After graduating from the girls’ high school in Sisak (ca. 1892), she qualified as a teacher in Zagreb at the...

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MIROVICH, pseudonym for Zinaida Sergeevna Ivanova (1865-1913)

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pp. 344-347

Zinaida Ivanova, who was born in 1865, grew up in Moscow, the daughter of a Moscow Superintendent of Schools. Further information about her parents is not available. Like many other feminist activists, she was part of the newly emerging but small female intelligentsia. She took advantage of newly available...

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MORACZEWSKA, Zofia (1873-1958)

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pp. 348-351

Zofia Moraczewska (nee Gostkowska) was born on 4 July 1873 in Czerniowce, Bukovina (then in the Austro-Hungarian Empire), into an intellectual family. Her father, Roman Gostkowski (1837–1912), was a professor at the Technical University of Lviv; her mother, Wanda born Dylewska (?–1912), was a housewife. They had four children, two of...

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MOSZCZEŃSKA, Iza (Izabela Moszczeńska- Rzepecka) (1864–1941)

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pp. 352-355

Iza Moszczeńska was born on 28 October 1864, into a noble family from Great Poland (the historical name for the Polish territories then incorporated into the Prussian State under the so-called Prussian partition). She was born on the family estate of Rzeczyca, the daughter of Alfons Moszczeński (1816–1890) and his second wife Eufemia, born Krukowiecka (b. ca. 1838). Iza Moszczeńska had three sisters and one brother: Zofia (b. ca. 1860), Anna (ca. 1865–ca. 1878), Cesia (b. 1866) and Jan (b. 1870). Like many female members of...

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MUHİTTİN, Nezihe (1889–1958)

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pp. 356-359

Nezihe Muhittin was born in 1889 in Istanbul. Her mother was Zehra Hanım (the daughter of Ali Şevket Pasha; the name of Zehra Hanım’s mother is unknown). Nezihe’s father, Muhittin Bey, was a state prosecutor. Nezihe Muhittin attended the French Missionary School and her early ambition...

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NĂDEJDE, Sofia (1856-1946)

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pp. 360-362

Sofia Băncilă was born in 1856 in the city of Botoşani (northern Moldavia), at that time a Russian protectorate still formally under Ottoman suzerainty. Her family were răzeşi (free peasants); her parents were Vasile Băncilă Gheorghiu and Puheria-Profira Neculce

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NEGRUZZI, Ella (1876-1948)

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pp. 383-365

Born in Hermeziu, a village in the province of Moldavia (in the young Romanian Kingdom), Ella Negruzzi was the daughter of the writer Leon Negruzzi. Details of her mother are unknown. Intellectually prominent members...

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NĚMCOVÁ, Božena (born Barbora Panklová) (1820?–1862)

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pp. 366-369

Although there have been some attempts to prove her noble origins, most sources agree that Barbora Panklová was born out of wedlock in Vienna on 5 February 1820 (?), to Marie Magdalena Terezie Novotná (1797–1863), a fifteen-yearold Czech servant, and Johann...

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NINKOVIĆ (Ninkovich), Milica (Todorović, Todorovich) (1854–1881)

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pp. 370-371

Serbs in Novi Sad. Milica Ninković was born on 30 January 1854 in Novi Sad (then southern Hungary, now in Serbia), where her father Petar Ninković was a headmaster and teacher at the Serb High School. Since the University of Zurich was the first European university to admit female students...

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NOVÁKOVÁ (born Lanhausová), Teréza (1853–1912)

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pp. 372-375

Teréza Lanhausová was born on 31 December 1853, into a wealthy middleclass Czech–German family from Prague (her mother, Ernestina, was German). Along with her sister Marie, she attended the famous private Amerling school for girls, where she acquired the basic...

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ORZESZKOWA, Eliza (1841–1910)

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pp. 376-380

Eliza (real name Elżbieta) Orzeszkowa, nee Pawłowska (second married name Nahorska) was born on 6 June 1841 into a well-off noble family on the family estate of Milkowszczyzna (approx. forty km from Grodno; located in territory annexed to the Russian empire, but not part of the Polish Kingdom established...

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OVADYA, Haim Estreya (1922–1944)

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pp. 381-384

Born in Bitola on 25 December 1922, into a very poor family (no data regarding her parents exists), Estreya Ovadya was a member of the Bitola Ženska Internacionalna Cionisticka Organizacija (ZICO, Women’s International Zionist Organization/ WIZO) which, in accordance...

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ÖZTUNALI, Nurser (1947–1999)

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pp. 385-388

Nurser Öztunalı was born on 4 February 1947 in Mersin, the eldest daughter of a middle-class family from Istanbul. Her father, Hilmi Öztunalı (1924–1990), was a customs officer; her mother, Semiha (b. 1927; maiden name Balcı), a housewife. Nurser Öztunalı had two sisters: Gülser (1952), a feminist academic...

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PAJK, Pavlina (born Doljak) (1854-1901)

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pp. 389-391

Pavlina Doljak was born on 9 April 1854 in Pavia (Italy), where her father Josip Doljak (from Grgar near Gorizia) was a judge and (after 1848) a member of the Viennese Parliament. Her mother, Pavlina Milharčič, was the daughter of a school inspector and teacher from Gorizia...

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PANTELEEVA, Serafima (1846–1918)

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pp. 392-396

Serafima Latkina was born in 1846 in St Petersburg and brought up in a relatively well-to-do Russian Orthodox family. Her father, Vasilii Latkin (1812–1867), grew up in Ust’-Sysol’sk, a small town located in a remote northern province of European Russia and made his fortune as a result of a successful expedition...

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PAPIĆ, Žarana (1949–2002)

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pp. 397-401

Žarana Papić (called Žarka by her family) was born on 4 July 1949 in Sarajevo, Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia. She was brought up in a family that actively resisted fascism and nationalism and fought for freedom and social justice. Her parents were Milena, born Šotrić...

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PARREN, Callirhoe (born Siganou) (1859–1940)

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pp. 402-407

Callirhoe Parren was undoubtedly the first to introduce feminism to Greece, or rather a ‘moderate’ feminism (according to the poet Kostis Palamas); one which could adapt to the existing structures of Greek society at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. Her rich, varied and untiring work in journalism and writing, as well as in the fields of education, philanthropy and social reform, her acquaintance with the intellectual...

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PASHKEVICH, Alaiza; pen-name ‘TSIOTKA’ (‘Auntie’ in Belarussian) (1876–1916)

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pp. 408-420

Alaiza Pashkevich was born on 3 July 1876 into a wealthy peasant (Catholic) family on the Peszczyn estate in western Belarus (the Belarussian–Lithuanian ethnic and linguistic territories), in the Northwestern Province of the Russian Empire. She was one of the six children of Styapan/Stephan and Hanna...

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PAVLYCHKO (PAVL’YCHKO), Solom’iya (Solom’ea, Solom’iia) Dm’ytrivna (1958–1999)

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pp. 411-415

Solom’iya Pavlychko was born in Lviv (Ukraine). Her parents were Dmytro Pavlychko (b. 1929), Ukrainian poet and influential figure in the Ukrainian movement for independence, and Bohdana Pavlychko, a doctor. Pavlychko spent most of her adult life in Kiev, where she studied English and French at the Taras...

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PCHILKA, Olena (real name Olha Petrivna Kosach, born Drahomanova) (1849–1930)

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pp. 416-419

Olena Pchilka (pseudonym of Olha Petrivna Kosach, born Drahomanova) was born in Hadiach (in the region of Poltava) on 29 July 1849, to a landed noble family steeped in liberal and intellectual traditions. Her father, Petro Yakymovych Drahomanov (1802–1866), was a graduate of the St Petersburg...

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PEJNOVIĆ, Kata (1899–1966)

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pp. 420-423

Kata Pejnović (nee Bogić) was born on 21 March 1899, to a peasant family in the village of Smiljan in Lika, a poor rural region of Croatia with an ethnically mixed population consisting of Serbs and Croats. Her father, Dmitar Bogić, worked for the Austro-Hungarian police...

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PERIN-GRADENSTEIN, Karoline Freifrau von (1806–1888)

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pp. 424-426

Karoline Freifrau von Perin-Gradenstein (nee von Pasqualati) was born on 12 February 1806 in Vienna, into an intellectual and artistic family. Her father, Joseph Andreas Freiher von Pasqualati (1784– 1864), was a pomologist and wholesale trader in fruit and vegetables...

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PETKEVIČAITE˙, Gabriel˙e (1861–1943)

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pp. 427-431

Gabriel˙e Petkevičait˙e was born on 18 March 1861, into a Catholic gentry family on the Puzinišk˙es family estate in the Panevežys district in northern Lithuania. The family estate of Puzinišk˙es was a local cultural center that attracted many activists of the Lithuanian...

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PIPIN¸A, Berta (1883–1942)

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pp. 432-435

Berta Pı-pin, a (born Ziemele) was born on 28 September 1883, in the parish of Code (Latvia). Her father, Jekabs Ziemelis, was an innkeeper and also a farmer, as was her mother Liza (born Kula). Berta Ziemele attended the state school in the parish of Misa and later, the Bekeris girls’ ‘preliminary gymnasium...

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PLAMĺNKOVÁ, Františka F. (1875–1942)

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pp. 436-458

Františka Plamínková was born on 5 February 1875 in Prague, a descendant of farmers and weavers in Podkrkonoší, a district in the north of Bohemia. Her mother was Marie Plamínková, born Gruberová; her father, František Plamínek, had attended a craft school in Prague and started his...

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PLAVEVA, Rosa (born Varnalieva) (1878–1970)

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pp. 441-443

women’s equality; influential public figure. Rosa Varnalieva was born in 1878 in Veles, to parents Agna (her mother, who lived to be 103) and Atanas Varnaliev. The Orthodox Christian Varnaliev family had four children: Rosa, Kata, Petar and Ilija, all of whom became active in the town’s socialist movement....

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PODJAVORINSKÁ, Ľudmila (pseudonym), born Ľudmila Riznerová (1872–1951)

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pp. 444-446

Ľudmila Riznerová was born on 26 April 1872 in a village called Bzince pod Javorinou. Her mother (name unknown) and father (Karol Rizner, a teacher) had ten children, of which Ľudmila was the eighth. Serious illness affecting her eyes and bodily strength contributed to L’udmila’s introverted and meditative nature as a child. She continued to suffer from ill health throughout her life. Ľudmila attended the elementary...

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POPP, Adelheid (1869–1939)

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pp. 447-449

Adelheid Popp (nee Dworschak) was born on 11 February 1869, into a poor Viennese working-class family. She was the youngest of five children to survive out of fifteen. Her father (data unknown) was an impoverished weaver and a physically abusive alcoholic. Violence and poverty were an integral...

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POSKA-GRÜNTHAL, Vera (Veera) (1898–1986)

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pp. 450-473

Vera Poska was born in Tallinn on 25 March 1898, into the family of Jaan Poska (1866–1920) and Constance Poska, born Ekström (1876–1922). Her father was a lawyer, Mayor of Tallinn (1917–1920), Estonian Prime Minister (1918), Minister of Foreign Affairs (1919) and Minister of Justice (1920). The Poskas belonged to the Orthodox Church and had six daughters...

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The QIRIAZI Sisters, Sevasti (1870–1949) and Parashqevi (1880–1970)

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pp. 454-458

Sevasti (Dako) Qiriazi was born in February 1870 in Manastir (Monastir in English, a city in southern Albania), one of the ten children of Dhimiter Qiriazi and his wife Maria. Sevasti finished Greek elementary school and later, American high school in Manastir, finally going on to study at the American College...

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RACIN, Kočo (Konstantin Solev) (1908–1943)

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pp. 479-482

Konstantin Solev was born on 22 December 1908, into an extremely poor Orthodox Christian family from Veles. His mother Maria was a housewife and his father, Apostol Solev, a pottery-maker. He was their first child. He had three brothers: Aleksandar, Nikola, and a third one whose name is unknown. Konstantin Solev never married and did not have children. He completed four grades of primary school in Veles and one year of what was then high...

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REUSS IANCULESCU, Eugenia de (1866–1938)

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pp. 463-466

Eugenia de Reuss Ianculescu was born on 11 March 1866 in Igeşti, Bucovina (then part of the Habsburg Empire), on the estate of the Reuss-Mirza family. She was the daughter of Maria Dinotto- Gusti and Alexandru de Reuss-Mirza, the latter descended from the aristocratic Reuss-Mirza family, which...

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REZLEROVÁ-ŠVARCOVÁ (also written SCHWARTZOVÁ), Barbora (1890–1941)

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pp. 467-469

Barbora Švarcová (born Rezlerová; she used both names) was born on 7 July 1890 in Bleibach (Bavaria, Germany). Her father, Josef Rezler, was a textile worker who had come to Bleibach from Bohemia with Barbora’s mother, Jozefína Rezlerová (born Horová). Barbora Rezlerová’s father was one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party in Bohemia. When he returned to Bohemia from Germany with his wife and five children, the family settled in the town of Košín, near Prague. Like her parents and siblings...

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RUDNYTSKA, Milena (1892–1979)

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pp. 470-474

Milena Rudnytska was born on 15 July 1892 in Zborov, a small town in eastern Galicia (today in Ukraine), at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. At the end of the nineteenth century, the political situation in this eastern and economically backward province of the Habsburg Empire had been determined by a lasting conflict between Poles...

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RUMBO, Urani (1895–1936)

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pp. 475-498

Urani Rumbo was born in December 1895 in Stegopuli, a southern Albanian village in Gjirokastër. She had two brothers, Kornili and Thanasi, and a sister, Emilia. Her father, Spiro Rumbo, was a teacher and her mother, Athinaja, a housewife. Urani completed six grades of elementary education at...

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SCHLESINGER, Therese (1863–1940)

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pp. 479-483

Therese Schlesinger (born Eckstein) was born on 6 June 1863 in Vienna, into an upper middle-class, liberal, factory-owning family of Jewish descent. Her father, Albert Eckstein, was a chemist from Lieben near Prague. Her mother, Amalie Wehle, was born in Prague. They married in 1860 and had six daughters and four sons. Therese was the third child. The couple’s house was open to a variety of intellectual personalities and the family defined itself...

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SCHWIMMER, Róza (Bédy-Schwimmer, Bédi-Schwimmer, Rózsa, Rosika) (1877–1948)

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pp. 504-510

Róza Schwimmer was born on 11 September 1877 in Budapest, into an upper middle-class Jewish family. Her mother, born Bertha Katscher (1856– 1927), and her father, agricultural trader Max Schwimmer (born between 1843 and 1845–d.1922), married in 1877. Róza, who had a younger...

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SEKULIĆ, Isidora (1877–1958)

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pp. 491-513

Isidora Sekulić was born on 16 February 1877 in Mošorin, Vojvodina (then part of Austro-Hungary, today in Serbia). Isidora’s mother Ljubica Sekulić, her father Danilo Sekulić, and brother Predrag Sekulić (b. 1874), all died of tuberculosis within seventeen years of one another (in 1883, 1900 and 1881 respectively), leaving young Isidora with no ...

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SERTEL, Sabiha (born Nazmi) (1895–1968)

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pp. 514-517

Sabiha Sertel was born Sabiha Nazmi (?) in 1895 in Selanik (Thessaloniki). She was the sixth and last child in the family of customs official Nazmi (1851–1920) and housewife Atiye (1872–1945). The city in which she was born and raised had an impact on her intellectual formation by virtue of being a center...

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SHABANOVA, Anna (1848–1932)

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pp. 498-502

Anna Nikolaevna Shabanova was born in 1848, to a noble but not particularly wealthy family from the Smolenskaia guberniia (oblast or region of Smolenskaia). Detailed information on her relatives is lacking, except for the fact that during the reforms of the 1860s, her family was financially ruined...

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SHAPIR, Ol’ga Andreevna (born Kislaikova) (1850–1916)

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pp. 503-506

Ol’ga Kislaikova was born in Oranienbaum, near St Petersburg, on 10 (22) September 1850, the youngest of nine children. Her father, Andrei Petrovich Kislaikov, was a military official at the command post in Oranienbaum. Her mother, Louisa Abramovna Kislaikova (data unknown), was...

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SHCHEPKINA, Ekaterina Nikolaevna (1854–1938)

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pp. 507-509

Ekaterina Nikolaevna Shchepkina was born in 1854, into an old Moscow gentry family which, in her generation, included many scholars and academics. Among her siblings and cousins were several noted historians and linguists, including her younger brother Evgenii N. Shchepkin (1860–1920), also an historian. Shchepkina attended the Guerrier courses in Moscow and then the Bestuzhev Higher Women’s Courses in St Petersburg. As a protégé of the Director, the historian K. N. Bestuzhev-Riumin, she met some of the leading male...

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SHISHKINA-IAVEIN, Poliksena Nestorovna (1875–1947)

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pp. 520-513

Poliksena Shishkina was born in Nikolaev in April 1875. Her father, Nestor Shishkin, was a musical military conductor and took part in the Russian–Turkish war (1875–1878). Her mother (data unknown) was from a family of Ukrainian gentry. Poliksena had six brothers, all of whom received higher education...

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SKENDEROVA, Staka (1831–1891)

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pp. 514-526

Staka Skenderova was born in 1831 into a lower middle-class family, of which little is known. The family moved from Prijepolje in Herzegovina to Sarajevo in Bosnia proper. Skenderova’s father Pero was a merchant who died early in Staka’s childhood. Almost nothing is known of her mother Mara, sister Savka and brother Ilija, except that they died in Sarajevo in 1889, 1888 and 1866 respectively. From the start, Staka was rare among the girls of her generation. She is said to have been raised like a boy; she socialized with men and often dressed...

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SKLEVICKY, Lydia (1952–1990)

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pp. 517-520

Lydia Sklevicky was born on 7 May 1952 in Zagreb, the only child of Lea and Sergej Sklevicky. The Sklevickys were a middle-class family of central European origin, with roots in the nineteenth-century Russian diaspora. Lydia Sklevicky was given a rigorous ‘European’ education and studied European languages. Upon finishing high school, she enrolled at the Filozofski fakultet (Faculty of Philosophy), University of Zagreb, where she graduated in 1976...

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SLACHTA, Margit (1884–1974)

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pp. 541-545

Margit Slachta was born on 18 September 1884, in the city of Kassa (today Košice, Slovakia), in the ‘northern highlands’ (Felvidék) of Hungary. Her parents— Kálmán Slachta (1857–1936), descendent of a respectable nobleman of Polish origin, and Borbála...

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STASOVA, Nadezhda Vasil’evna (1822–1895)

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pp. 546-549

Nadezhda Vasil’evna Stasova was born on 12 June 1822, to the famous court architect Vasilii Stasov (1769–1848), a favorite of Tsar Alexander I, and Mariia Abramovna Suchkova (1796–1831), the daughter of a lieutenant of the Semenovsky Guard Regiment. Nadezhda...

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ŠTEBI, Alojzija (Lojzka) (1883–1956)

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pp. 550-553

Alojzija Štebi was born on 24 March 1883 in Ljubljana. Her father Anton Štebi was a haulier. Nothing is known about her mother Marija (born Kunstel). Alojzija Štebi went to a girls’ school and graduated from teacher-training college in Ljubljana in 1903. In that year, she was employed as a supply teacher in Tinje, Carinthia. A year later, she became a regular teacher in Tržič, then in Radovljica, Mavčice and Kokra. Her socialist ideas and activities...

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STERN, Szeréna, Mrs Pollák (1894–1966)

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pp. 554-558

Szeréna Stern was born on 15 June 1894 in Nagyatád, south-west of Hungary’s Lake Balaton, into a very poor Jewish family. Her mother’s maiden name was Rózsa Herstein and Szeréna had at least one younger sister, but nothing else is known of her family. Having graduated as an elementary school...

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STETINA, Ilona (Mrs Gyula Sebestyén)

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pp. 539-543

Ilona Stetina was born on 27 March 1855 to a well-off Catholic family in the eastern Hungarian town of Großwardein/ Nagyvárad (today Oradea, Romania). Her father, Lipot Stetina (dates of birth and death unknown), was from landed family in western Hungary (Dunántúl). He...

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SUBURG, Lilli (Caroline) (1841–1923)

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pp. 544-547

Lilli (Christian name Caroline) Suburg was born on l August 1841 in the township of Uue-Vändra, in the parish of Vändra. Her mother was Eva Suburg (born Nuut); her father, Toomas Suburg, was the keeper of the granary at the Rőusa estate. Soon after Lilli’s...

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SVĚTLÁ, Karolína (pseudonym; born Johanna Rottová) (1830–1899)

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pp. 548-551

Karolína Světlá was born Johanna Rottová on 24 February 1830, into a patrician family that lived in Prague’s ‘Old Town.’ Her father, Eustace Rott, had come to Prague from the central Bohemian town of Český Brod, from a Czech family that, despite its enforced return to Roman Catholicism after...

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SVOLOU, Maria (born Desypri) (1892?–1976)

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pp. 552-557

Little is yet known about the life of Maria Svolou. Since no biography of her exists, we are only able to glimpse her career through her writings, her public activities (mentioned in periodicals, newspapers etc.), her parliamentary career, as well as through the...

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SZELĄGOWSKA, Anna (1880–1962)

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pp. 558-561

Anna Szelągowska (nee Paradowska) was born in Warsaw on 20 July 1880, into a prosperous family. After graduating from a private school in 1895, she enrolled— against her parents’ wishes—in the first private high school to accept women as students: Izabella Smolikowska’s...

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SZELIGA, Maria (pseudonym), also known in France and the USA as Maria Chéliga or Chéliga-Loevy (1854–1927)

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pp. 562-566

Maria Szeliga (nee Mirecka, first married name Czarnowska; second married name Loevy) was born in 1854 into a prosperous land-owning family in Jasieniec Solecki, in the Kingdom of Poland (a partially autonomous state, later taken by Russia, established after...

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SZNARKIEWICZ, Nadzeja (born Kaladzianka) (1897–1974)

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pp. 567-568

Nadzeja Kaladzianka was born on 30 September (12 October) 1897 in Brest. Her father died when she was seven years old, after which her mother moved with her to the village of Wostrawa near Kobryn, and then to Pruhzany. In 1914, Nadzeja graduated from Pruzhany women’s gymnasium and, in 1919, after completing courses in pedagogy (the only post-secondary education course available to women in the Russian Empire), she qualified as a teacher. She had already been working as a teacher of boys and girls in Pruzhany County, in the...

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THEODOROPOULOU, Avra (born Drakopoulou) (1880–1963)

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pp. 569-574

Avra Drakopoulou was born on 3 November 1880 into a family with strong political and intellectual traditions. Her grandfather, Carolos Drakopoulos, was a well-known fighter in the 1821 Independence Revolution and her father, Aristomenis Drakopoulos, served as Consul General of Greece in Adrianople. No data exists regarding her mother, Eleni. Her sister, Theoni Drakopoulou (1881–1973), was a well-known poet who took the pen name of ‘Myrtiotissa’ (from ‘myrtle’). Her nephew...

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TOMŠIČ, Vida (born Bernot) (1913–1998)

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pp. 575-579

Born on 26 June 1913 in Ljubljana, a Slovenian town situated between the Alps and the Adriatic sea, Vida Tomšič lived a long and turbulent life, reflecting the history of the area in which she lived. Born in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the territory of her birth became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia...

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TOYEN (born Marie Čermínová) (1902–1980)

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pp. 580-583

Toyen was born Marie Čermínová in Prague on 21 September 1902. Although little is known of her family background, it may be assumed that the relationship between her and her parents was influenced by divergent political views. Toyen sympathized with anarchism and....

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TRUBNIKOVA, Mariia (1835–1897)

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pp. 584-586

Mariia Vasil’evna Trubnikova, the daughter of a political exile, was born on 6 January 1835 in the eastern Siberian settlement of Petrovskii zavod (Petrov’s mill). Her father, military officer Vasilii Petrovich Ivashev (1797–1840), was from a wealthy noble family from the Simbirsk guberniia (now the oblast or province of Ulianovskaya). In 1819, Ivashev...

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TYRKOVA-WILLIAMS, Ariadna (1869–1962)

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pp. 588-600

Ariadna Tyrkova was born on 26 November 1869 into a noble Russian gentry family of simple means. Her mother, Sophia Karlovna Tyrkova (born Gaily, 1837), came from a modest Protestant family of Baltic Germans. Her father, the lawyer Vladimir Aleksandrovich...

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VANSOVÁ, Terézia (1857–1942)

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pp. 595-598

Terézia Vansová, born Medvecká, was one of twins (a boy and a girl) born in Zvolenská Slatina (Upper Hungary, Austria– Hungary; Slovakia) on 18 April 1857. Both twins were rather weak but their parents Terézia (born Langeová) and the almost thirty years older Samuel...

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VANSOVÁ, Terézia (1857–1942)

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pp. 595-598

Terézia Vansová, born Medvecká, was one of twins (a boy and a girl) born in Zvolenská Slatina (Upper Hungary, Austria– Hungary; Slovakia) on 18 April 1857. Both twins were rather weak but their parents Terézia (born Langeová) and the almost thirty years older Samuel Medvecký paid little attention to the...

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VIKOVÁ-KUNĚTICKÁ, Božena (1862–1934)

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pp. 519-623

Božena Viková born Novotná was born on 30 July 1862 to an innkeeper and grain trader; there is no information about her mother. She studied acting under the guidance of the distinguished Czech actress Otýlie Sklenářová-Malá, giving up on this career after the National Theater burned down in...

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VODE, Angela (1892–1985)

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pp. 604-607

Her name has been virtually unknown in Slovenia for the last fifty years. Yet one could say that her work and her life-story (or “destiny” as she put it) not only form a significant narrative in the history of Slovenia, with its political transformations (including developments...

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VOINESCU, Alice Steriadi (1885–1961)

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pp. 608-612

A remarkable intellectual, Alice Steriadi Voinescu came to the attention of the Romanian reading public with the publication of her private diary in 1997, in a post-1989 climate of heightened interest in personal testimonies. Covering the years from 1929 through 1961 (the year of her death), Voinescu’s diary attracted attention primarily for its...

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XENOPOL, Adela (1861–1939)

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pp. 613-615

Adela Xenopol was born in 1861 in Iaşi (exact date of birth unknown) into a prominent intellectual family. Her older brother, Alexandru D. (1847–1920) was the first significant modern Romanian historian and a... member of the ‘Junimea circle,’ whose leader, Titu Maiorescu, attacked women’s intellectual abilities during a conference held at the Athenaeum in Bucharest in May...

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ŻELEŃSKI, Tadeusz Kamil Marcjan (Boy) (1874–1941)

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pp. 616-619

Boy-Żeleński’s father, Władysław Żeleński (1837–1921), was a composer from a noble family dating back to the fifteenth century. In 1873, Władysław Żeleński married Wanda Grabowska (1841–1904), who was from a middle-class family. Both families cultivated patriotic Polish traditions. In the eighteenth century, Grabowska’s family had converted from J...

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ZLATAREVA, Vera (1905–1977)

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pp. 620-623

Board member (Secretary) of the lawyers’ branch of the Druzhestvo na bulgarkite s visshe obrazovanie (Bulgarian Association of University Women). First Bulgarian woman permitted to work as a defense lawyer (1945). Vera Zlatareva was born on 3 December 1905, in the small village of Goliamo Belovo, 100 kilometers east of the Bulgarian capital, Sofia. Her mother Maria (b. 1880) and...

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ZLATOUSTOVA, Ekaterina Hristova (1881–1952)

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pp. 624-627

Energetic, strong-minded, resourceful, practical and persevering—that was how Ekaterina Zlatoustova was once described by her uncle Ivan Batsarov, surgeon, head doctor of the Bulgarian army and for sixty years the most trusted friend of his niece (in private correspondence, 1902–1910). Born in Varna on 22 September 1881, Ekaterina (Katya) Zlatoustova...

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ŻMICHOWSKA, Narcyza (1819–1876)

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pp. 628-632

Narcyza (real name Kazimiera Narcyza Józefa) Żmichowska was the tenth child of Wiktoria born Kiedrzyńska (d. 1819) and Jan Żmichowski (d. 1838), a clerical worker for a salt mine at Nowe Miasto on the Pilica River (central Poland). Narcyza was born in Warsaw on 3 March 1819. Orphaned...

Picture Credits

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pp. 633-637

Index of Persons, Organizations and Geographical Names

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pp. 638-677

back cover

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p. 698-698

E-ISBN-13: 9786155053726
Print-ISBN-13: 9789637326394

Page Count: 698
Publication Year: 1920

Edition: 1st