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Land and Agrarian Reform in Zimbabwe

Beyond White-Settler Capitalism

Sam Moyo

Publication Year: 2013

The Fast Track Land Reform Programme implemented during the 2000s in Zimbabwe represents the only instance of radical redistributive land reforms since the end of the Cold War. It reversed the racially-skewed agrarian structure and discriminatory land tenures inherited from colonial rule. The land reform also radicalised the state towards a nationalist, introverted accumulation strategy, against a broad array of unilateral Western sanctions. Indeed, Zimbabweís land reform, in its social and political dynamics, must be compared to the leading land reforms of the twentieth century, which include those of Mexico, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Cuba and Mozambique. The fact that the Zimbabwe case has not been recognised as vanguard nationalism has much to do with the ëintellectual structural adjustmentí which has accompanied neoliberalism and a hostile media campaign. This has entailed dubious theories of ëneopatrimonialismí, which reduce African politics and the state to endemic ëcorruptioní, ëpatronageí, and ëtribalismí while overstating the virtues of neoliberal good governance. Under this racist repertoire, it has been impossible to see class politics, mass mobilisation and resistance, let alone believe that something progressive can occur in Africa. This book comes to a conclusion that the Zimbabwe land reform represents a new form of resistance with distinct and innovative characteristics when compared to other cases of radicalisation, reform and resistance. The process of reform and resistance has entailed the deliberate creation of a tri-modal agrarian structure to accommodate and balance the interests of various domestic classes, the progressive restructuring of labour relations and agrarian markets, the continuing pressures for radical reforms (through the indigenisation of mining and other sectors), and the rise of extensive, albeit relatively weak, producer cooperative structures. The book also highlights some of the resonances between the Zimbabwean land struggles and those on the continent, as well as in the South in general, arguing that there are some convergences and divergences worthy of intellectual attention. The book thus calls for greater endogenous empirical research which overcomes the pre-occupation with failed interpretations of the nature of the state and agency in Africa.

Published by: African Books Collective

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-5

Contents

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pp. 6-7

List of Abbreviations

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pp. vii-viii

List of Tables, Figures and Boxes

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgements

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pp. xi-13

We are grateful for the assistance that many people afforded us during this book project. Invaluable comments were received from various Zimbabwean researchers and activists at a workshop convened by the African Institute for Agrarian Studies (AIAS) in December 2009 in Harare. We received extensive feedback on some chapters from participants in the annual Agrarian Studies Summer School between 2009 and 2012 in Harare, Dar es Salaam and ...

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Notes on Contributors

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pp. xiii-xiv

Walter Chambati is a researcher at the African Institute for Agrarian Studies (AIAS) in Harare and was Future Agriculture’s Consortium Research Fellow for 2011. He received a BSc. (Hons) in Agricultural Economics from the University of Zimbabwe and a Masters in Public and Development Management from the University of Witwatersrand. His research interests are in rural labour issues and agricultural development in Africa and he is studying for a ...

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1. Introduction: Roots of the Fast Track Land Reform in Zimbabwe

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pp. 1-27

The Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) implemented during the 2000s in Zimbabwe represents the only instance of radical redistributive land reforms since the end of the Cold War. It reversed the racially-skewed agrarian structure and discriminatory land tenures inherited from colonial rule, whereby over 6,000 large-scale white farmers and a few foreign and nationally- owned agro-industrial estates controlled most of the prime land, water resources ...

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2. Land Reform and Redistribution in Zimbabwe Since 19801

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pp. 29-77

Although it is increasingly recognised that Zimbabwe’s Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP), initiated in 2000, was redistributive (Moyo et al 2009; Scoones et al 2010), few studies have examined the qualitative character of this outcome and its prospects for progressive social and political transformation in a largely agrarian society. Most critics of the FTLRP ...

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3. A Decade of Zimbabwe’s Land Revolution: The Politics of the War Veteran Vanguard

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pp. 79-121

The Zimbabwe state, governed since 1980 by a nationalist elite with origins in the liberation movement, has experienced complex dynamics and changes regarding class relations and power in a post-colonial settler economy. The state reached a climax of political polarisation during this last decade, from 2000 to 2010. In the first two decades of independence, the ruling ...

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4. Nyabira-Mazowe War Veterans’ Association: A Microcosm of the National Land Occupation Movement

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pp. 123-155

Land reforms have taken shape in many countries of the world, across all continents and at different stages of their respective development. In Zimbabwe, the Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP), an outcome of invasions and subsequent occupations of Large Scale Commercial Farms (LSCF), shook the Zimbabwean and Western aristocrats’ establishment in 2000 and has been ...

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5. Changing Agrarian Labour Relations after Land Reform in Zimbabwe

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pp. 157-194

The agrarian labour relations generated after the ‘Fast Track’ Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) tend to be neglected in most literature after 2000. This neglect largely resulted from the dismissal of the redistributive nature of the FTLRP and changing patterns of agricultural production by some studies (see Marongwe 2009; Masiiwa and Chipungu 2004; Hellum and Derman 2004; Sachikonye ...

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6. Changing Agrarian Relations after Redistributive Land Reform in Zimbabwe

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pp. 195-250

Zimbabwe’s Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) initiated from 2000 extensively redistributed land, mainly to peasants and working peoples (see Moyo 2011c) and, in doing so, unravelled the labour reserve economy created over a century of settler-colonial agrarian capitalism. This change has created a broader range of prospects for progressive agrarian transformation, despite the persistence ...

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7. Social Organisation in the Aftermath of ‘Fast Track’: An Analysis of Emerging Forms of Local Authority, Platforms of Mobilisation and Local Cooperation

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pp. 251-289

The Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) has led to significant social change, with approximately 160,000 families now settled in areas previously inhabited by approximately 4,000 large-scale farmers. As of 2005 most of this land was held through leases and permits issued by the state, as opposed to freehold land tenure (see Moyo, Chapter 2). Significant change was also ...

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8. Media Framing of Land Reform in Zimbabwe

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pp. 291-329

That the land issue has been the epicentre of Zimbabwe’s socio-political and economic struggles since colonial times is hardly disputable. The extensive coverage of the country’s land revolution in the local and global media, particularly after the launch of the Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) in the year 2000, attests to the potency of the mass media in public ...

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9. The Zimbabwe Model: Radicalisation, Reform and Resistance

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pp. 331-357

The world system has entered a period of prolonged crisis which is already producing a new generation of radicalisms. If we were to judge from previous periods of systemic transition, the current one is likely to evolve through a series of revolutionary situations and eventually yield a handful of revolutionary ruptures, which will unleash tidal waves throughout the system. But every ...

Back cover

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p. 374-374


E-ISBN-13: 9782869785700
Print-ISBN-13: 9782869785533

Page Count: 372
Publication Year: 2013