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Negotiating the Livelihoods of Children and Youth in Africaís Urban Spaces

Michael Bourdillon

Publication Year: 2016

This book deals with problems facing children and youth in African cities today. African populations have high growth rates and, consequently, relatively high proportions of young people. Population growth in rural areas has stretched resources leading to urban migration and a rapid growth of cities. Economies have not grown apace with the population; and in some countries, economies have even shrunk. The result is a severe lack of resources in cities to meet the needs of the growing populations, shown in high unemployment, inadequate housing, poor services, and often extreme poverty. All the essays in this book draw attention to such urban environments, in which children and youth have to live and survive. The title of this book speaks of negotiating livelihoods. The concept of ëlivelihoodí has been adopted to incorporate the social and physical environment together with peopleís responses to it. It considers not only material, but also human and social resources, including local knowledge and understanding. It, thus, considers the material means for living in a broader context of social and cultural interpretation. It, therefore, does not deal only with material and economic existence, but also with leisure activities, entertainments and other social forms of life developed by young people in response to the dictates of the environment. The book contains country-specific case studies of the problems faced by youths in many African cities, how they develop means to solve them, and the various creative ways through which they improve their status, both economically and socially, in the different urban spaces. It recognizes the potentials of young people in taking control of their lives within the constraints imposed upon them by the society. This book is a valuable contribution to the field of child and youth development, and a useful tool for parents, teachers, academics, researchers as well as government and non government development agencies.

Published by: African Books Collective

Title Page

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Copyright Page

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Notes on Contributors

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pp. vii-

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-15

CODESRIA held a month-long institute on ‘Negotiating Children’s and Youth Livelihoods in Africa’s Urban Spaces’ (Dakar, Senegal, in September 2009). The twenty participants were senior and junior academic researchers, both Francophone and Anglophone, from universities and related institutions throughout the...

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2. Chômage et conditions d’existence des jeunes de la ville de Ouagadougou

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pp. 17-32

Selon le Bureau international du travail (BIT 2000), le chômage se définit statistiquement comme la situation d’une personne sans travail rémunéré, disponible pour occuper un emploi et effectuant une démarche de recherche d’emploi. Sont donc considérés comme chômeurs, ceux qui sont dépourvus d’emploi et qui...

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3. Familles en survie dans un espace défavorisé à Ouagadougou

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pp. 33-48

Aujourd’hui, la commune de Ouagadougou dépasse le million d’habitants (INSD 2007 : 24). À la faveur de la politique de décentralisation (à partir de 1992), la commune de Ouagadougou a été scindée administrativement en 5 arrondissements dans lesquels se répartissent une trentaine de...

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4. Villes et créativité des enfants et des jeunes au Cameroun

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pp. 49-65

Trois observations majeures sont au départ de la présente analyse. Tout d’abord, il est important de rappeler que, pour qui est attentif au développement de la population camerounaise, il ne fait aucun doute que les enfants et les jeunes constituent deux catégories sociales dont la densité démographique permet...

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5. The Representations of Unaccompanied Working Migrant Male Children Negotiating for Livelihoods in a South African Border Town

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pp. 67-85

The recent phenomenon of massive numbers of unaccompanied Zimbabwean migrant children who are working in South Africa is provoking consternation among parents, guardians, child-related organizations, and the governments of South Africa and Zimbabwe. People’s concerns about these children...

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6. Scavenging by Minors at Huruma Garbage Dumpsite: The Children’s Story

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pp. 87-103

Children and youth have been the subject of much debate, ranging from issues concerning their rights, poverty, homelessness, and in particular their work. Certain forms of child work have been found to be more beneficial than detrimental to children’s well-being. These benefits could range from a higher sense...

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7. Les jeunes commerçants handicapés moteurs dans la négociation de la vie entre Brazzaville et Kinshasa (1970-2009)

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pp. 105-122

Nées majoritairement de la volonté coloniale, les villes africaines sont depuis engagées dans une dynamique des échanges multiformes. Brazzaville et Kinshasa, deux « villes miroirs1», semblent être l’archétype de ces échanges trans-urbains en Afrique centrale. Le rythme de ces échanges peut amener à croire qu’on...

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8. Youths’ Poverty and Livelihood Strategies in Fegge, Onitsha Urban Local Government Area, Nigeria

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pp. 123-134

The world has in recent times been experiencing rapid urbanization. Presently, over 80 per cent of children and youths live in urban cities of Africa, Asia, and Latin America (Unicef 2002:21). Sub-Saharan Africa is said to have the most youthful populations in the world. An estimated 200 million young people...

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9. Hunting and Gathering by Children and Youths in Owerri Urban, Nigeria: Negotiating Dietary Supplements

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pp. 135-150

In the suburbs of Owerri, children’s struggle to survive comes to the fore when one observes the phenomenon of bands of chattering children and youths browsing the bushes on some nights with their local light sources and gathering snails for food or for sale. On occasional nights, in the rainy season, they...

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10. Youth Livelihoods and Karaoke Work in Kampala’s Nightlife Spaces

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pp. 151-168

Youth, most frequently defined as those between the ages of 15 and 24, comprise a major part of the urban population in Uganda. It is estimated that about 17 per cent of Uganda’s population falls in the 15 to 24 age group (Uganda Demographic and Health Survey – UDHS – 2006). In urban and rural areas, this age...

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11. Patronage of Local Cinema Halls among Urban Youths in Ado Ekiti, Southwest Nigeria

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pp. 169-185

Globally, urban areas are noted for the provision of social and public spaces in terms of education, energy supply, leisure, recreation facilities in order to make life conducive for the urban dwellers. Nigerians are deprived of these facilities in urban centres due to poverty and failure to maintain the existing ones...

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12. Dynamique urbaine et nouvelles formes de négociation de l’existence sociale : les jeunes et les « grins de thé » dans la ville de Ouagadougou

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pp. 187-199

Dans un contexte économique marqué par une forte dégradation du marché de l’emploi et un affaiblissement des liens sociaux, les jeunes de la ville de Ouagadougou inventent des stratégies de débrouille à travers des réseaux de sociabilité que sont les « grins de thé ». Dans cette ville en crise, l’expérience d’un processus...

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13. The Value of Socialization in Negotiating Livelihoods among the Youth: A Case of Bugembe Youth Group in Uganda

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pp. 201-216

As the African continent moves into the 21st century, it is also advancing from an agro-economy to mixed economy. This is characterized by the development of cities as people move from rural areas towards modern facilities in the urban centres, including better markets for their goods, electricity, and running...

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14. La « prostitution alimentaire » juvénile à Yaoundé

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pp. 217-228

Le phénomène de la prostitution constitue encore une préoccupation majeure dans les recherches. La difficulté à cerner cette réalité dans toutes ses dimensions naît du fait qu’elle est en interrelation avec plusieurs faits sociaux de telle sorte qu’on ne saurait l’appréhender de manière isolée. De ce fait, une concaténation...

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15. The Trajectories of Survival of the Mungiki Youth in Nairobi

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pp. 229-245

The numerous socio-economic challenges facing the youth in developing nations today have meant that youth must find new approaches to address these challenges and utilize what is available in their surroundings to enable them survive. This is especially the case in the congested, poor living conditions of the sub-urban...

Back Cover

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E-ISBN-13: 9782869785410
Print-ISBN-13: 9782869785045

Page Count: 254
Publication Year: 2016