Framework and Tools for Environmental Management in Africa
Publication Year: 2011
Published by: African Books Collective
Title Page, Copyright
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For a long time, Africa’s environmental problems have been addressed out of context. This context can be split into two: the colonial and postcolonial periods. Although both of these contexts are worthy of equal attention, it is in the postcolonial era that well calculated strategies to prolong enslavement have been used deliberately by our former masters, leading to the continent’s impoverishment. In addition, many studies on the...
1 Introduction and Overview
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African governments have laid their hands on most international proposals made in response to the need to address environmental decay. But, unlike the sequential and harmonious progression witnessed from the developed countries, starting from the Stockholm Declaration on Human Environment in 1972, through the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit on Environment and Development in 1992...
PART I - FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
2 Global Landmarks for Environmental Governance
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The ‘environment’ became a global policy issue in the mid-1960s (Carter 2001). By that time, many governments had adopted a techno-centric approach that considered environmental problems to be the unfortunate side-effects of economic growth and development. Therefore, the main assumption was that governments would eventually find a way of addressing such problems (Howlett and Ramesh 1995). ...
3 International Environmental Law: Sources and Fundamentals
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The earth is plagued with a huge array of environmental problems, due largely to anthropogenic causes. These problems can be categorised as either local or global, depending on the scale or geographical spread of their impact. Though local problems are largely the concerns of nations, because of the apparent localised impact, it is now understood that sooner or later, such impacts will escalate and spread...
4 Environmental Management on African Agenda
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Insofar as global landmarks for environmental management have sought to influence environmental policy at an abstract level, their impact has been great in influencing continental and sub-continental environmental policies. However, Africa’s environmental management agenda still remain very much in the making of donors and other development agencies, such as the World Bank, SIDA, CIDA and DANIDA...
5 Uncertainties and Environmental Threats in Africa
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Africa is the second largest of the seven continents in the world, with a land area of 30,000,000 km2, about one fifth of the world’s total area (ECA 2001). The ECA estimates that about half of the cultivable land is arid or semi-arid, comprised mostly of desert, with the least content of organic matter. Yet, the continent remains one of the richest in terms of natural resources. ...
6 Africa and Global Environmental Problems
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In the previous chapter, there was detailed analysis of the environmental problems confronting the African continent, otherwise referred to as local and regional environmental problems in our continent. These problems, unlike the global problems we are about to discuss, have yet to receive adequate treatment for a better understanding of their impact on the African continent. Global environmental problems...
PART II - SELECTED TOOLS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
7 Conservation and Natural Resource Management
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The history of conservation and natural resource utilisation is as old as the human race. Interestingly, it is characterised both by the nullification of the user rights of communities, and by devolution of power to the communities. On the one hand, nullification of user rights was a measure adopted by many nations to control access to natural resources, ostensibly for the purpose of management. ...
8 Environmental Impact Assessment and Public Participation
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Until the mid-1990s, many development projects in African countries were implemented with limited environmental concerns. The results were catastrophic: severe environmental damage and unsustainable economic development ethics. This chapter is written within the context of the increased consensus on the part of African governments of the need to harness negative environmental impacts associated...
9 Understanding Environmental Education
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Environmental problems have been subjects of popular discussions and debates from time immemorial. The result is a long history of educational campaigns and movements that eventually forged the way for the inclusion of environmental concerns into national and international policy and decision making. Environmental education has been recognised as a tool or mechanism for providing lasting solutions...
10 Sustainability Reporting
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Sustainability reporting can be viewed at global, continental, sub-continental, national, sub-national and company level. The notions of sustainability and sustainable development are generally taken to reflect environmental, economic, social and technological spheres; whereas at the corporate level, these spheres are enveloped within the principles of good corporate governance. ...
11 Promotion of Formal and Non-formal Environmental Education
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One important characteristic of environmental education is the employment of a wide variety of methods. This chapter considers some approaches and methods that could be employed in the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of formal or school-based, and non-formal or community-based, environmental education in any given setting. It begins with a delineation of the key paradigms that inform...
PART III - EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
12 Conclusion: Emerging Issues and the Way Forward
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We may recap that there still remain highly sensitive discourses on how best the African continent can speak in one voice in order to address some of the key environmental problems. An example is the importation of hazardous waste, with AU members having ratified the rival Basel and Bamako conventions. Africa has embraced the concept of sustainable development as a development paradigm...
Page Count: 234
Publication Year: 2011