Reorienting the Manchus
A Study of Sinicization, 1583-1795
Publication Year: 2011
Published by: East Asia Program, Cornell University
Title Page, Copyright
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Qing Reign Periods
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Nurhachi Tianming, 1six.oldstyle1six.oldstyle–1six.oldstyle2six.oldstyleHong Taiji Tiancong, 1six.oldstyle2seven.oldstyle–1six.oldstylethree.oldstylesix.oldstyleChongde, 1six.oldstylethree.oldstylesix.oldstyle–1six.oldstylefour.oldstylethree.oldstyleShunzhi 1six.oldstylefour.oldstylefour.oldstyle–1six.oldstylesix.oldstyle1Yongzheng 1seven.oldstyle2three.oldstyle–1seven.oldstylethree.oldstyle5...
List of Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches
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List of Illustrations and Translated Poems
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List of Maps and Tables
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In this note I would like to explain the usages in the present study. Except for some well-accepted practices and a few spellings preferred by the individuals in question, I have used the pin-yin system of romanization for Chinese terms and names throughout the study. I render many Chinese place names according to the long-established ...
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I would like to take this opportunity to express my appreciation to appreciation goes f_irst to the many scholars of Qing history or Manchu studies in the United States and overseas. T_heir works inspired me to think more deeply and broadly about the subject. Since it would be tedious to list all of them here, I acknowledge my debt by citing their ...
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An et.schnic.sc m.scino.scr.scit.scy.sc in China t.sco.scd.scay.sc, the Manchus enjoy a long history. T_he Qing dynasty (1six.oldstylefour.oldstylefour.oldstyle–1nine.oldstyle12) they founded was an apex of Chinese civilization, distinguished by its immense geographical dimensions, which contemporary China has inherited. As descendants of the Jurchens—members of the southern Tungus—they had been ...
Chapter IThe Ancestry and Ethnic Compositionof the Manchus
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The Manc.schus.sc o.scr.sciginat.sced.sc in China’s.sc No.scr.sct.scheas.sct.sc, a vast region known to the West as Manchuria. T_hey emerged in the 1six.oldstylethree.oldstylezero.oldstyles as a political entity, characterized by a long and intricate ancestry, as well as diverse ethnic components. Early Manchuria was isolated in certain areas and displayed cultural disparity and political disunity, but it ...
Chapter IIThe Founding of the Qing Dynasty
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The Qing d.scy.scnas.sct.scy.sc em.scer.scged.sc as.sc a r.sces.scul.sct.sc of the Manchu conquest of China, which was of great importance to both China and the Manchus. But the transition from the Ming to the Qing was a lengthy and painful process for both the Manchus and the Chinese. To China it meant the second time the country had come under an alien minority from the ...
Chapter IIIEconomic Forces
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Sinicization of the Manchus began long before their conquest of China in one.oldstylesix.oldstylefour.oldstylefour.oldstyle. From early Ming times the Jurchens, their most recent ancestors, had set the process in motion. Economic forces provided channels of contact and therefore played a major role in sinicization. T_his chapter focuses on agriculture, frontier markets, and tributary ...
Chapter IVFrontiersmen and Transfrontiersmen
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As China’s nor.sctheaster.scn fr.scontier.sc, Manchuria was a meeting place for cultures and peoples, even in prehistoric times. It was the “ocean gateway” of Mongolia and the end of the eastern drives of the nomads from as far away as Central Asia. It stood as a bridge, over which Chinese culture and politics reached Korea.one.oldstyle Within its ...
Chapter VThe Rise of Administrativeand Legal Institutions
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Chinese ad.scm.scinistr.scativ.sce and.sc l.scegal.sc institutions helped greatly in the sinicization of the Manchus because they functioned in relationship with Chinese norms, mores, and values. With the fall of the Jin dynasty in one.oldstyletwo.oldstylethree.oldstylefour.oldstyle, a gloomy chapter opened in the history of the Jurchens. T_here were no ef_fective indigenous administrative or legal institutions in ...
Chapter VITransformation of Social Institutions
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Chinese infl.scuence on Jur.scchen social.sc institutions perhaps played the most signif_icant role in sinicization. Changes began before one.oldstylesix.oldstylefour.oldstylefour.oldstyle as a result of frontier contacts. T_he Liaodong region provided, among other things, a social basis for interaction between the Chinese and Jurchen frontiersmen. T_he wide cultural disparity did not hinder ...
Chapter VIIManchu Language and Literature
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...perspective of their language and literature. In the early years of the Qing the Manchu language took precedence over Chinese, although both were of_f_icially adopted. Specialists translated Manchu docu- ments into Chinese and vice versa. T_he court encouraged young Chinese scholars to learn Manchu. Chinese of_f_icials were insulted by Man- ...
Chapter VIIIArchitecture, Religion, and Confucianism
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Ar.scchitectur.sce ser.scv.sced.sc as another.sc v.scehicle for the sinicization of the Manchus because aesthetics is related to ethnic identity. Inf_luenced by Bohai, Khitan, and Chinese cultures, the Jurchens made strides in architecture during the Jin dynasty. T_heir palaces, temples, and gardens in and around Peking attested to remarkable architectural achievements. ...
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The Manchus had.sc a long.sc ancestr.scal line originating in Northeast China, also known as Manchuria. Geographical barriers in that region created diverse ecologies and, consequently, special economic enclaves. T_he barriers also resulted in scattered political centers comprising tribes or tribal alliances. Because of intertribal rivalry, such centers ...
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... 8 Cornelius C. Kubler, Vocabulary and Notes to Ba Jin’s Jia: An Aid for Reading the Novel 16 Monica Bethe & Karen Brazell, Nō as Performance: An Analysis of the Kuse Scene of Yamamba 18 Royall Tyler, tr., Granny Mountains: A Second Cycle of Nō Plays 28 Diane E. Perushek, ed., The Griffis Collection of Japanese Books: An Annotated Bibliography 37 J. Victor Koschmann, Ōiwa Keibō & Yamashita Shinji, eds., International Perspectives on Yanagita Kunio and Japanese ...
Page Count: 400
Illustrations: 4 figures, 11 tables, 5 maps, 2 color photos
Publication Year: 2011
Edition: First hc