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Reorienting the Manchus

A Study of Sinicization, 1583-1795

By Pei Huang

Publication Year: 2011

Making extensive use of Chinese, Japanese, Manchu, and Western sources, the author adopts a historical multifaceted approach to explore the various forces - geography, economics, frontier contacts, political and social institutions; language, literature and art; religion and Confucianism - that made possible the Manchu adoption of Chinese ways of life.

Published by: East Asia Program, Cornell University

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 1-4

Contents

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pp. v-vi

Qing Reign Periods

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pp. ix-10

List of Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches

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pp. xi-xii

List of Illustrations and Translated Poems

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pp. xiii-14

List of Maps and Tables

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pp. xv-16

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Explanatory Note

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pp. xvii-xix

In this note I would like to explain the usages in the present study. Except for some well-accepted practices and a few spellings preferred by the individuals in question, I have used the pin-yin system of romanization for Chinese terms and names throughout the study. I...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxi-xxiv

I would like to take this opportunity to express my appreciation to those who have helped me at various stages of this study. My appreciation goes first to the many scholars of Qing history or Manchu studies in the United States and overseas. Their works inspired me to...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-30

An ethnic minority in China today, the Manchus enjoy a long history. The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) they founded was an apex of Chinese civilization, distinguished by its immense geographical dimensions, which contemporary China has inherited. As descendants...

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Chapter I. The Ancestry and Ethnic Composition of the Manchus

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pp. 31-65

The Manchus originated in China’s Northeast, a vast region known to the West as Manchuria. They emerged in the 1630s as a political entity, characterized by a long and intricate ancestry, as well as diverse ethnic components. Early Manchuria was isolated in certain...

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Chapter II. The Founding of the Qing Dynasty

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pp. 67-96

The Qing dynasty emerged as a result of the Manchu conquest of China, which was of great importance to both China and the Manchus. But the transition from the Ming to the Qing was a lengthy and painful process for both the Manchus and the Chinese. To China it meant the...

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Chapter III. Economic Forces

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pp. 97-126

Sinicization of the Manchus began long before their conquest of China in 1644. From early Ming times the Jurchens, their most recent ancestors, had set the process in motion. Economic forces provided channels of contact and therefore played a major role in sinicization....

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Chapter IV. Frontiersmen and Transfrontiersmen

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pp. 127-171

As China’s northeastern frontier, Manchuria was a meeting place for cultures and peoples, even in prehistoric times. It was the “ocean gateway” of Mongolia and the end of the eastern drives of the nomads from as far away as Central Asia. It stood as a bridge, over...

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Chapter V. The Rise of Administrative and Legal Institutions

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pp. 173-203

Chinese administrative and legal institutions helped greatly in the sinicization of the Manchus because they functioned in relationship with Chinese norms, mores, and values. With the fall of the Jin dynasty in 1234, a gloomy chapter opened in the history of the Jurchens. There...

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Chapter VI. Transformation of Social Institutions

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pp. 205-229

Chinese influence on Jurchen social institutions perhaps played the most significant role in sinicization. Changes began before 1644 as a result of frontier contacts. The Liaodong region provided, among other things, a social basis for interaction between the Chinese...

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Chapter VII. Manchu Language and Literature

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pp. 231-261

Chinese influence on the Manchus can be examined from the perspective of their language and literature. In the early years of the Qing the Manchu language took precedence over Chinese, although both were officially adopted. Specialists translated Manchu documents...

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Chapter VIII. Architecture, Religion, and Confucianism

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pp. 263-294

Architecture served as another vehicle for the sinicization of the Manchus because aesthetics is related to ethnic identity. Influenced by Bohai, Khitan, and Chinese cultures, the Jurchens made strides in architecture during the Jin dynasty. Their palaces, temples, and gardens...

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Conclusion

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pp. 295-311

The Manchus had a long ancestral line originating in Northeast China, also known as Manchuria. Geographical barriers in that region created diverse ecologies and, consequently, special economic enclaves. The barriers also resulted in scattered political centers comprising...

Glossary

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pp. 313-324

Bibliography

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pp. 325-361

Index

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pp. 363-374

Further Reading

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pp. 375-376


E-ISBN-13: 9781933947921
Print-ISBN-13: 9781933947228

Page Count: 400
Illustrations: 4 figures, 11 tables, 5 maps, 2 color photos
Publication Year: 2011

Edition: First hc