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The Origins of War in Mozambique

A History of Unity and Division

Sayaka Funada-Classen

Publication Year: 2013

The independence of Mozambique in 1975 and its decolonisation process attracted worldwide attention as a successful example of ìnational unityî. Yet, the armed conflict that broke out between the government and the guerrilla force in 1977 lasted for sixteen years and resulted in over a million deaths and several million refugees, placing this concept of ìnational unityî into doubt. For nearly twenty years, Sayaka Funada-Classen interviewed people in rural communities in Mozambique. By examining their testimonies, historical documents, previous studies, international and regional politics, and the changes that various interventions under colonialism brought to the traditional social structure, this book demonstrates that the seeds of ìdivisionî had already been planted while the liberation movement was seeking ìunityî in the struggle years. Presenting a comprehensive history of contemporary Mozambique, this book is indispensable for Mozambican scholars. It promises to serve as a landmark study not only for historians and the scholars of African studies but also for those who give serious consideration to the problems of conflict and peace in the world.

Published by: African Books Collective

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-3


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pp. iii-iv

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pp. v-vi

In 1994 I was about to leave Mozambique after having completed my work for the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ), when I was suddenly struck by serious doubts. How could I leave this place like this? How dare I speak as a UN functionary about peace and democratisation to local people when I knew so little about their country? ...

List of Illustrations

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pp. vii-viii

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

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pp. ix-x

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Introduction. Seeking the Origins of Unity and Division

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pp. 1-56

Globally, the concept of colonial rule became increasingly questioned and was losing its hold on the world. Sometimes this was as a result of protest from the colonised, and in other cases, due to a change in stance, and subsequent withdrawal, by the coloniser. ...

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Chapter 1. Emergence of “Mozambique”and Social Changes under Colonial Rule

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pp. 57-96

Despite being a minor player in Europe in the sixteenth century, Portugal was the first country to establish various trade bases along the African coast. Portugal’s strategy was at times criticised, perhaps out of rivalry among other reasons, and it was derided as the “first to come, last to go” by other countries.1 ...

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Chapter 2. Characteristics of Maúa and the Process of Colonisation

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pp. 97-136

Drawing on research conducted in the Maúa area, this chapter explores how the residents of Maúa responded to Portugal’s colonial rule and what historical and social changes the region underwent prior to the country’s liberation. ...

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Chapter 3. Mozambique Before the Liberation Struggle

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pp. 137-202

Th e Second World War impacted on every country, either directly or indirectly, leaving the world a different place once it ended. Colonial rule, previously thought to be unshakable, started to crumble. By battering the losers and exhausting the winners, the war in effect prepared the world for decolonisation. ...

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Chapter 4. World Politics from 1960 to 1975 and Mozambique’s Liberation Struggle

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pp. 203-286

He pointed out that the expansion of anti-colonialism within the United Nations had contributed to this significant shift in thinking. However, there were many contributing factors and it took many years of struggle, influenced by regional power relations, as well as the Cold War, before southern Africa felt the full effects of liberation. ...

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Chapter 5. Maúa Circumscription during the Liberation Struggle

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pp. 287-374

In 1950 Maúa was one of the three administrative posts in Marrupa Circumscription.4 Th e population of Marrupa was 50,352 in 1952. It was the least densely populated circumscription in Niassa District, comprising 19.5 per cent of the population and 38 percent of the land.5 ...

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Conclusion. From the Liberation Struggle to Post-independence Armed Conflict

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pp. 375-394

This book attempts to unravel why the liberation movement in Mozambique, which aimed to unify the people, also resulted in deepening divisions. The book undertook a multi-layered investigation of individuals, regional societies, national politics, the southern Africa region and international politics ...


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pp. 395-415

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pp. 416-417

I would like to thank the most patient, capable and wonderful team of Japanese and South African women who translated and edited my Japanese text into an English book: Masako Osada, Amanda Dissel, Frances Williams and Sawako Allison. In particular, this book would not have seen the light of day without Masako’s hard work and commitment. ...

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About the Author, About the Translator

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pp. 418-441

Sayaka Funada Classen is an Associate Professor at the Graduate School of Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (TUFS) where she teaches African Affairs, Peace and Conflict Studies and Portuguese. She was a representative of a Japanese NGO, Mozambique Support Network, established in 2000 after the Mozambique Great Flood, ...

Index of Organisations and Institutions

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pp. 419-424

Index of People and Ethnic Groups

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pp. 425-429

Index of Place Names

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pp. 430-433

E-ISBN-13: 9781920489984
Print-ISBN-13: 9781920489977

Page Count: 442
Publication Year: 2013