The Origins of War in Mozambique
A History of Unity and Division
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: African Books Collective
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Title Page, Copyright
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In 1994 I was about to leave Mozambique after having completed my work for the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ), when I was suddenly struck by serious doubts. How could I leave this place like this? How dare I speak as a UN functionary about peace and democratisation to local people when I knew so little about their country? I was ashamed of my ignorance and arrogance. While looking down at the red earth from the ...
List of Illustrations
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List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
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A revolutionary ship slips in and we bid farewell to dear brothersDon’t be frightened by the orders you receive but face them cheerfullyWe have gone through three wars. We know war is still on … Confl icts haven’t disappeared yet. We women are not allowed to get a word in … Before we go to sleep at night, we decide on which direction our feet should face, so that we ...
CHAPTER 1Emergence of “Mozambique”and Social Changes under Colonial Rule
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Principle of "eff ective occupation" and Portuguese colonial ruleDespite being a minor player in Europe in the sixteenth century, Portugal was the fi rst country to establish various trade bases along the African coast. Portugal’s strategy was at times criticised, perhaps out of rivalry among other reasons, and it was derided as the “fi rst to come, last to go” by other countries.1 Until the end of the nineteenth century, ...
CHAPTER 2Characteristics of Maúaand the Process of Colonisation
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Drawing on research conducted in the Maúa area, this chapter explores how the residents of Maúa responded to Portugal’s colonial rule and what historical and social changes the Th e focus of attention is an area in Mozambique which became known, during the liberation struggle, as Maúa Circumscription (Circunscrição de Maúa). Lying between two rivers, the Lúrio and the Lugenda, it fell within Niassa District (Distrito de Niassa) in ...
CHAPTER 3MozambiqueBefore the Liberation Struggle
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Changes in the international environment and Portuguese colonial policyLiberation struggles in Asia and the intensifi cation of colonial rule in AfricaTh e Second World War impacted on every country, either directly or indirectly, leaving the world a diff erent place once it ended. Colonial rule, previously thought to be unshakable, started to crumble. By battering the losers and exhausting the winners, the war in eff ect ...
CHAPTER 4World Politics from 1960 to 1975and Mozambique’s Liberation Struggle
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Th is chapter explores both international and domestic infl uences during the 1960s and Th e beginning of the volatile 1960s and the international situationAsahiko Hanzawa, a political scientist specialising in the decolonisation process, commented in an article entitled “Th e end of the Cold War and World Politics in the “Any form of colonialism is the act of evil”, now an international norm, was still ...
CHAPTER 5Maúa Circumscriptionduring the Liberation Struggle
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We were discussing the plan to go to Tanzania [in 1966]. Th en we were betrayed and tortured. PIDE came for us and hanged us until we lost consciousness. Th ey assaulted us with a knife and tried to frighten us into confessing. We kept shouting, “We want independence. Kill us if you want.” Finally, we received the heaviest sentence of all and were sent to Iha do Ibo [Ibo Island].1 Many ...
CONCLUSIONFrom the Liberation Struggle toPost-independence Armed Confl ict
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Th is book attempts to unravel why the liberation movement in Mozambique, which aimed to unify the people, also resulted in deepening divisions. Th e book undertook a multi-layered investigation of individuals, regional societies, national politics, the southern Africa region and international politics in order to try and draw some conclusions and present some understandings. Th e book’s main aim is to explore and present the hypothesis ...
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I would like to thank the most patient, capable and wonderful team of Japanese and South African women who translated and edited my Japanese text into an English book: Masako Osada, Amanda Dissel, Frances Williams and Sawako Allison. In particular, this book would not have seen the light of day without Masako’s hard work and commitment. ...
About the Author
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Sayaka Funada Classen is an Associate Professor at the Graduate School of Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (TUFS) where she teaches African Aff airs, Peace and Confl ict Studies and Portuguese. She was a representative of a Japanese NGO, Mozambique Support Network, established in 2000 after the Mozambique Great Flood, and vice chairperson of the International Conference on African Development (TICAD) Civil Society Forum, a ...
Index of Organisations and Institutions
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Index of People and Ethnic Groups
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Index of Place Names
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Page Count: 442
Publication Year: 2013