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In the Shadow of a Conflict

Crisis in Zimbabwe and its effects in Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia

Bill Derman

Publication Year: 2013

Zimbabwe has cast a powerful regional and international shadow since it became independent in 1980 and more recently, through the crises of the first decade of the twenty-first century. The 2000s were a decade of combined political, economic and social crises in Zimbabwe following what had been a relatively successful twenty years of independence since 1980. The scale, depth and severity of the crises evolving since 2000 have been as dramatic as they have been unexpected. While there has been substantial coverage of the internal consequences of Zimbabweís crises less attention has been paid to its regional and cross-border consequences. In explaining the ongoing processes stemming from the crises, this book looks at three neighboring countries ñ Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia ñ to depict how, over time, they have experienced and interpreted events in Zimbabwe, how they have dealt with Zimbabweans entering their territories, and how they have or have not formulated policies and developed practices to cope with the arrival of new and mainly undocumented Zimbabwean immigrants.

Published by: African Books Collective

Cover

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p. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. 2-5

Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Maps, Illustrations and Tables

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgements

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pp. ix-x

This book is a result of a long-standing collaboration among six institutions, including the Department of International Environment and Development Studies (Noragric at the Norwegian University of the Life Sciences, the Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS) at the University of the Western Cape, the University of Zambia, ...

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Contributors’ details

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pp. xi-xii

Lincoln Addison is a PhD candidate in the Department of Anthropology at Rutgers University. Since 2005, he has conducted research with Zimbabwean farm workers in northern Limpopo province, South Africa. This research informs his dissertation currently titled ‘Delegated Despotism: Frontiers of Agrarian Labor on a South African Border Farm.’ ...

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1. Introduction. Crisis in Zimbabwe and its regional effects

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pp. 1-28

Zimbabwe has cast a powerful regional and international shadow since it became independent in 1980 and more recently, through the crises of the first decade of the twenty-first century. The 2000s were a decade of combined political, economic and social crises in Zimbabwe following what had been a relatively successful twenty years of independence since 1980. ...

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2. Reflections on National Dynamics, Responses and Discourses in a Regional Context

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pp. 29-66

Neighbouring governments’ policies and responses to the developing crisis1 in Zimbabwe have since 2000 attempted to reduce violence and strengthen democracy in the country while supporting to varying degrees the government and its leader, Robert Mugabe. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) made efforts to end violence ...

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3. Poverty, Shelter and Opportunities: Zimbabweans’ experiences in Mozambique

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pp. 67-91

It was during the year 2008 – the year of the most dramatic and most contested elections in Zimbabwe to date – that unprecedented numbers of Zimbabweans crossed the border to seek refuge in Mozambique. While the majority of those who left the country during the decade from 2000 went to South Africa (UNHCR, 2010), thousands also crossed into Mozambican territory. ...

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4. Settling for Less? Zimbabwean Farmers and commercial farming in Mozambique

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pp. 92-120

With the start of large-scale evictions on commercial farms in Zimbabwe from 2000 onwards, and a much wider series of political and economic crises, Mozambique’s Manica Province (hereafter referred to as Manica2) along the central-west border with Zimbabwe became a preferred site of relocation for a relatively small yet not insignificant group ...

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5. Reversing the Flows of People, Skills and Goods: Rural livelihood changes in central Mozambique

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pp. 121-145

These quotes highlight some hidden aspects of the impact of the Zimbabwe crisis on central Mozambique. While many white farmers from Zimbabwe faced bankruptcy in 2006 (the end of the ‘Manica miracle’, see Chapter 4), the Mozambican government launched a ‘Green Revolution’ strategy for smallholder farmers, ...

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6. Governing the South African/Zimbabwean Border: Immigration, criminalization and human rights

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pp. 146-179

Borders in the contemporary world mark independent nation-states that attempt to control movements of people and goods across them. In southern Africa these national boundaries have a profound historical importance due to the efforts by the colonial governments of what are now Zimbabwe, Namibia, Mozambique and especially South Africa ...

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7. Hierarchies, Violence, Gender: Narratives from Zimbabwean migrants on South African farms

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pp. 180-206

By 2008, the number of Zimbabweans working on farms on the South African side of the border was conservatively estimated at 20,000. This excluded the growing number of Zimbabweans living on farms without the knowledge or consent of owners. In this period of economic collapse and hyperinflation in Zimbabwe, ...

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8. Finding Shelter and Work in the Communal Areas of Limpopo: Zimbabweans in rural South Africa

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pp. 207-235

South Africa’s communal areas have become the homes and work places for significant numbers of Zimbabweans. As elsewhere in South Africa, newly arriving Zimbabweans come in search of employment, housing and an escape from suffering and insecurity. However, the realities of life in the communal lands provide a different context for obtaining shelter, security and work.2 ...

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9. Factions in the Field: Social divisions and gendered survival strategies on a South African border farm

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pp. 236-259

Ndiyo Joni yacho’ (this is Johannesburg), a young Zimbabwean woman says to me when I ask her about sex work in the farm compound. Our conversation takes place on Heddon Estates, a large-scale tomato farm nestled along the banks of the Limpopo River. A torn plastic tarpaulin wrapped around stick poles cordons off the small fire-pit in front of her hut. ...

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10. Farms as Camps: Displaced Zimbabweans on commercial farms in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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pp. 260-284

In J.M. Coetzee’s (1983) novel Life and Times of Michael K, the protagonist walks through a South Africa torn by civil war, from Cape Town to Prince Albert in the Western Cape. Here he seeks freedom on an abandoned farm below the Swartberg mountains, getting by on a meagre living, scraping up the leftovers in livestock troughs or trying to grow pumpkins. ...

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11. Home away from Home: Land, identity and community on the Mkushi Farm Block

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pp. 285-308

Just after the turn of the millennium, a series of farm invasions began in Zimbabwe that would eventually see some 150,000 farm workers and an unknown number of commercial farm families flee the country.2 Most of the farm workers crossed, legally or illegally, into South Africa, Mozambique, or Malawi. ...

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12. The impact of the Zimbabwean Crisis on Informal Cross-Border trade with Zambia

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pp. 309-326

The economic crisis in Zimbabwe in the past decade has led to extraordinary growth in informal cross-border trade (CBT). Within the informal economy lies informal cross-border trade, which is unrecognized and often deemed illegal. For the purposes of this chapter, ‘informal cross-border trade’ is defined as trade where the movement of goods and services across borders ...

Bibliography

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pp. 327-350

Back cover

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p. 366-366


E-ISBN-13: 9781779222343
Print-ISBN-13: 9781779222176

Page Count: 364
Publication Year: 2013