Race and Recruitment
Civil War History Readers, Volume 2
Publication Year: 2013
The second volume of the best from Civil War History
For more than fifty years the journal Civil War History has presented the best original scholarship in the study of America’s greatest struggle. The Kent State University Press is pleased to present this second volume in its multivolume series reintroducing the most influential of the more than 500 articles published in the journal. From military command, strategy, and tactics, to political leadership, race, abolitionism, the draft, and women’s issues, from the war’s causes to its aftermath and Reconstruction, Civil War History has published pioneering and provocative analyses of the determining aspects of the Middle Period.
In this second volume of the series, John David Smith has selected groundbreaking essays by David Blight, Eugene Genovese, Mark Neely Jr., Brooks Simpson, and other scholars that examine slavery, abolitionism, emancipation, Lincoln and race, and African Americans as soldiers and veterans. His introduction assesses the contribution of each article to our understanding of the Civil War era.
Those with an interest in the issues, struggles, and controversies that divided a nation will welcome this essential collection.
Published by: The Kent State University Press
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...7 Controlling Banquoâs Ghost in a Changing Political Wind 1609 The Counter-Revolutionâs Black Path to Electoral Success 19214 Democratic Rejoicing, Party Responsibility, and Serious Preparations 39216 Convention Organization, Procedure, and the Public Record 40929 The Schedule, the Racial Serpent, and a Confederate Adjournment 666...
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Members of the West Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1872 2The Ordinance Passed, Charlestown, Virginia, by David Hunter Strother 70...
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Table 8.1. Racial Composition of West Virginia Males over Twenty-one Years of Table 8.2. Flick Amendment; Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution of 1863, with Table 11.1. Vote by County in the Flick Referendum on 27 April 1871.Table 11.2. Vote by County on Referendum of 24 August 1871 on Calling a Constitu-tional Convention in West Virginia, Showing Percentage and Plurality for and ...
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No American stateâs unique constitutional and political origins have af_fected its subsequent development more than West Virginiaâs. Geography and economic factors, both signif_icant and inf_luential to be sure, fail to explain completely the Mountain Stateâs of_ten troubling evolution. West Virginiaâs beginnings in the Ameri-can Civil War created political, territorial, and other divisions among its people ...
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Case Files of Applications from Former Confederates for Presidential Pardons, 1865â1867 (National Archives Publication M 1003, roll ___), Records of the Adju-tant Generalâs Of_f_ice, 1780sâ1917, Record Group 94, National Archives Building, Eighth Census of the United States (National Archives Microfilm Publication M653, roll ___), Records of the Bureau of Census, Record Group 29, National ...
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For a century and a quarter, the courts, lawyers, and a few historians of West Virginia have been interpreting the thirty-f_if_th stateâs Constitution of 1872 in the absence of convention debates. Legal of_f_icers and academic students have attempted to determine the rationale and original intention of the framers from what fallible con-temporary delegates recalled and from the constitutional conventionâs bare-bones ...
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When various academic and other writers attempt to explain the basic reasons for western Virginiaâs estrangement with eastern Virginia and the eventual formation of a separate state, they invariably emphasize sectionalism in its various manifesta-tions as the underlying cause. The obvious importance of sectionalism as a reality in the commonwealth cannot be dismissed, but geographical sectionalism in itself ...
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Af_ter the Virginia Convention of 1850â51, western Virginians stood constitutionally dissatisf_ied as they watched the national events involving slavery and sectionalism enf_lame the eastern portion of their commonwealth. In mid-decade, some of them, especially in the Northern Panhandle, began to be attracted by the free labor ideol-ogy of the Republican Party. Meanwhile, intrastate issues festered as westerners ...
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The act of creating West Virginia was a constitutional process that had to pass muster with all three branches of the U.S. government within the meaning of the Constitution of the United States of America. Western Virginia state makers dis-played scrupulous regard in following all appropriate procedures in undertaking their unprecedented acts. Much controversy over the issue of constitutionality of ...
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During the Civil War, West Virginia, lacking stable civil authority in some of its territory, participated fully in the national war ef_fort. The Boreman administra-tion and Republican legislators developed policies and procedures to extend civil order, to maintain internal security, and to cope with militant opposition within the stateâs borders. As the Civil War was ending for many exhausted West Virginia ...
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Political opposition to the West Virginia Legislatureâs proscriptive measures and to Governor Arthur I. Boremanâs administration and enforcement of them was immediate and continuous. Former Confederates had no direct means other than words, the courts, and extralegal acts to oppose various test oaths, the registration system, and the constitutional amendment of May 1866. The political opposition ...
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The probable national ratif_ication of the Fif_teenth Amendment, the declining Re-publican victory margins in state elections, and the increasing passage of time since the war caused deep Republican introspection about their course to achieve future political success. The partyâs fate, even its survival, in West Virginia was at stake. Northern Panhandle Republicans had already witnessed local Democratic ascen-...
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Although West Virginia Civil Era politics never knew a dormant season, around 1 September 1869 normal political intensity traditionally magnif_ied preparatory to the annual October legislative elections. Over the previous months, Granville Davis-son Hall and Wheeling Republicans, suf_fering from electoral losses to Democrats in Ohio County and anticipating a less than promising political future there and ...
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Ever since the U.S. Congress presented the Fif_teenth Amendment to the states for possible ratif_ication, West Virginia politicians privately reckoned what the impact of black male voting numbers might have on state politics. West Virginia had been the third state, af_ter Nevada and Louisiana, to ratify the Fif_teenth Amendment. As the amendment neared complete ratif_ication in early 1870, African American ...
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Despite Democratic Executive Committee chairman Lewis Bakerâs acquiescent edito-rial that advised Democrats not to f_ight the f_ixed facts of ratif_ication of the Fif_teenth Amendment and the Flick Amendment proposal enfranchising African Americans, many Democratic leaders and Baker soon abandoned their temperate stance. They knew an emotional issue that resonated with white West Virginia voters when they ...
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The most enthusiastic public celebration of the West Virginia Democratic/Con-servative triumph occurred in Charlestown, Jef_ferson County, where John Brown had met his fate. Within a week of the election, citizens had erected an eighty-f_ive-foot pole crowned with a crowing rooster in front of the damaged and abandoned courthouse. A large banner emblazoned with the words âredeem.sced, regener-...
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Two days af_ter the Ninth Legislatureâs adjournment, West Virginiaâs fourth governor and f_irst Democratic one, John Jeremiah Jacob, was inaugurated on a gloomy 4 March on the capitolâs front steps. Incidents at the inauguralâs various social events ref_lected the sometimes unpolished and rough and tumble nature of Charleston society. A brass band led the governor-elect, the incumbent and new state execu-...
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Long before the convention referendum on 24 August 1871, partisan Democrats assumed passage and began considering prospective delegates. They also had vindictive goals of rejecting unacceptable individuals. Because of Democratic success in the October 1870 state elections and overwhelming majorities for the Flick Amendment, they had good reason to be optimistic and to prepare. Delegate ...
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Any study of a constitutional convention must rest upon the collective biography of its delegates. The delegatesâ views, molded by their background and past experiences in all aspects, obviously and collectively created the constitutional and political result. Contemporaries and later historians of_ten characterized the convention as one of lawyers or of Confederates that was the culmination of the Democratic/...
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Af_ter the selection of convention delegates and the state legislature that f_irmly placed political control into Democratic hands, Lewis Baker, editor of the Wheeling Daily Register and state Democratic Party chairman, counseled fellow Democrats of the heightened responsibility that accompanied rejoicing about their new power. The Democrats had to do better than the Republicans had. The new constitution had to ...
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PostâCivil War Charleston was a town straining to revive its fortunes. Prior to the war, the Great Kanawha River town had enjoyed a boom-and-bust prosper-ity based on the extensive salt industry of declining national importance whose production f_ield stretched from the townâs eastern limits up the river on both sides and along the James River and Kanawha Turnpike beyond Malden. The Kanawha ...
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At noon on Tuesday, 16 January 1872, the West Virginia Constitutional Convention met in the Court of Appeals room at the new state capitol in Charleston. Delegate Benjamin Wilson of Wilsonburg, Harrison County, called the assembly to order and nominated Charles James Faulkner of Martinsburg as temporary president. The convention unanimously elected the nominee. Af_ter being conducted to his chair, ...
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While the standing committees prepared their reports and issued their recom-mendations on proposed constitutional provisions for Committee of the Whole and convention consideration, the convention addressed some emotional issues that ref_lected the dysfunctional aspect of formative-era West Virginia politics. The convention also decisively dispatched some proposals when a consensus existed. It ...
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Despite the war experiences that drove the majority in formulating the bill of rights, the place of the state, and state relations with the government of the United States, modern civil libertarians might well rejoice in the new, detailed bill of rights. Although the def_ined guarantees were based on tried-and-true English principles, Virginia precedent, and the United States Bill of Rights, the delegates did enunciate ...
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The proposed Article 3 of the constitution was part of the Standing Committee on Bill of Rights and Elections report, along with proposed Article 1, âThe State,â and Article 2, the âBill of Rights,â reported by Chairman Samuel Woods on 1 February. Debate on Article 3 began on 10 February af_ter the initial consideration of Articles Review of the proposed 3rd article, âElections of Of_f_icers,â detonated several of ...
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The Standing Committee of Taxation, Finance, and Educationâs name indicated its broad jurisdiction over public policy questions, but its formal title did not fully delineate its extensive breadth of responsibility. In addition to the named areas of concern, it developed constitutional provisions that dealt with corporations, including railroads and banks, and with public debt. This latter subject areaâthe ...
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Universal free schools came to West Virginia with the creation of the new state and the writing of its constitution. The issue of education was intertwined politically with other Civil War era issues. Political separation of constituencies that favored free schools from those who opposed them is dif_f_icult because of the usual lack of political candor. From the creation of free public schools in the original constitution, ...
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The convention delegates devoted much more of their attention and ef_fort to the other two branches of government, the legislative and judicial, than they did to the executive. They expended even more consideration and work in forming county organization. Historical and realistic reasons accounted for this lack of interest. Because of the colonial American experience, framers of state constitutions, includ-...
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Because of the obvious primacy of the law and its judicial interpretation and ap-plication in American society, many informed West Virginians considered the Committee on the Judiciary to be the most important of all convention committees. Most lawyers who were delegates aspired to be appointed to the Judiciary Com-mittee. Both lof_ty and base reasons motivated their viewpoint. Contemporaries ...
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The Committee on Legislative Department considered the greatest volume of reso-lutions and prepared the most extensive report of any other standing committee in the convention. Although overshadowed by the committee on Judiciary in public impression of importance, the Legislative Department Committee attracted great delegate attention. One reason was more convention delegates had more experi-...
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The work of the Committee on Judiciary and the Committee on County Organi-zation substantially overlapped because the main county governmental body had judicial as well as administrative and legislative functions. Even the referral of delegate resolutions for standing committee consideration was inef_f_icient because the subject of county government involved both committees. The arrangement ...
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The convention Committee on Miscellaneous Provisions, as its name indicated, considered a wide variety of subject matter, some of great interest and importance, for possible inclusion into the new constitution. The plan of the Committee of Eight, adopted on 18 January, set what business would be referred to this committee: 1) such parts of Article 11 of the existing constitution titled âMiscellaneousâ that had ...
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Legal protection for acts committed in wartime and pardon for the political of_fense of rebellion were urgent issues for former West Virginia Confederates, including those in the Constitutional Convention of 1872. One of the primary legal themes on the local and state level was the tendency of Republican judges to uphold criminal prosecutions and civil suits for property damages f_iled against former Confeder-...
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From the beginning of European interest, few subjects concerned explorers and traders and later settlers more than issues regarding land tenure and its ownership, tax delinquency, forfeiture, and redemption. And, few matters were more compli-cated and occupied more lawyers and other agents since the American Revolution. Land speculation and occupation had occurred at several levels: the land company ...
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The day before adjournment exposed the last stand on the issues that many troubled delegates saw as def_iciencies in the almost-completed constitution. The debate about the schedule of implementation provided delegatesânot reconciled to specif_ic constitutional provisionsâtheir last opportunity to secure parallel referenda on substitute sections to the proposed constitution. The convention, ...
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Enormous national and state political complexity in 1872 made the question of con-stitutional ratif_ication extremely complicated, even for the of_ten-murky standard of West Virginia politics. Before the Convention of 1872 began and ended, only one political given could be assumed. All Republicans opposed any proposed frame. In the conventionâs f_inal days, Delegate Benjamin Wilson optimistically viewed this ...
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...1. See Journal. In 2007, the bound manuscript journal of the constitutional convention was discovered in the West Virginia secretary of stateâs vault and was deposited in the West Virginia Department of Archives and History. Convention Journal; 1872; West Virginia, 382 pp., West Virginia Secretary of State Records. This bound volume also contains the signed enrolled copy 2. Maude Fulcher Callahan, Evolution of the Constitution of West Virginia (Morgantown: West ...
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Page Count: 336
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Civil War History Readers