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Hemingway, Cuba, and the Cuban Works

Larry Grimes, Bickford Sylvester

Publication Year: 2013

Ernest Hemingway resided in Cuba longer than he lived anywhere else in the world, yet no book has been devoted to how his life in Cuba influenced his writing. Hemingway, Cuba, and the Cuban Works corrects this omission by presenting contributions by scholars and journalists from the United States, Russia, Japan, and Cuba, who explore how Hemingway absorbed and wrote from the culture and place around him.

The volume opens with an examination of Hemingway’s place in Cuban history and culture, evaluations of the man and his work, and studies of Hemingway’s life as an American in Cuba. These essays look directly at Hemingway’s Cuban experience, and they range from the academic to the journalistic, allowing different voices to speak and different tones to be heard. The first section includes reflections from Gladys Rodriguez Ferrero, former director of the Museo Finco Vigía, who describes the deep affection Cubans hold for Hemingway; and recollections from the now-adult members of “Gigi’s All Stars,” the boys’ baseball team that Hemingway organized in the 1940s.

In the second part of the collection, Hemingway scholars— among them, Kim Moreland, James Nagel, Ann Putnam, and H. R. Stoneback—employ a variety of critical perspectives to analyze specific works set in Cuba or on its Gulf Stream and written during the years that Hemingway actually lived in Cuba. Also included are a long letter by Richard Armstrong describing the Machado revolution in Cuba and Hemingway’s photographs of fishermen at Cojimar, which provide vivid visual commentary on The Old Man and the Sea.

Appended to the collection are Kelli Larson’s bibliography of scholarly writing on Hemingway’s Cuban works and Ned Quevedo Arnaiz’s sample of Cuban writing on those works. A chronology placing Hemingway’s life in Cuba beside historical events is also provided.

This important volume illuminates Hemingway’s life and work during the Cuban years, and it will appeal to Hemingway fans and scholars alike.

Published by: The Kent State University Press


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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-iv


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pp. v-viii


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pp. ix-x

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Larry Grimes

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pp. xi-xviii

More than thirty years ago on a small “island in the stream” Hemingway scholars gathered to celebrate the opening of the Hemingway Collection at the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library in Boston. There Michael Reynolds challenged the assembled with an essay, “Unexplored Territory: The Next Ten Years of Hemingway Studies,” that has informed and shaped Hemingway research across the...

Part 1: Cuba

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Chapter 1: Hemingway The Man Who Worked In and Enjoyed Cuba

Gladys Rodriguez Ferrero

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pp. 1-7

No, here in Cuba Hemingway can never be considered as only a writer, even less as a man who did not know Cuba’s geography and reality. Never. Hemingway is much more for Cubana. Hemingway has never been considered as a man of sterile actions, but as a man whose life and work were aimed at defending...

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Chapter 2: Hemingway, Parody or Pastiche?

Jorge Santos Caballero, Translated by Emma Archer, Introduction by Larry Grimes

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pp. 8-12

In his novel To Have and Have Not, the American writer Ernest Hemingway created his main character, Harry Morgan, on a restricted and limited model, something like a tough guy, full of pragmatism. But Morgan has other qualities, too. His charismatic behavior helps him cope with difficult or dangerous situations without ever having to work out a clear plan for proceeding in life. Rather, he reacts to the trouble of the moment, depending on his ability to influence...

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Chapter 3: The Cuban Revolution

Yuri Paporov, Translated by Keneth Kinnamon, Introduction by Larry Grimes

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pp. 13-29

When Keneth Kinnamon wrote about Yuri Paporov’s book, Hemingway en Cuba, in The Hemingway Review (117–20), he praised Paporov for his interviews with Hemingway’s friends and associates in Cuba and noted the absence of such interviews in the standard biographies. Kinnamon hoped that Michael Reynolds would correct this oversight. He did not, although he did read and quote from...

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Chapter 4: An Interview with Gigi’s All-Stars at Ernest Hemingway’s Finca Vigía, San Francisco de Paula, Cuba, July 6, 2004

David B. Martens

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pp. 30-39

Gladys Rodriguez Ferrero: In 1997, David Martens interviewed Neftalí Pernas, who participated in the Hemingway colloquium that year. Among the many memories they discussed, Pernas told David his recollections of submarine hunting during World War II; Neftalí had lived in Guanabo, which was one of

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Chapter 5: Mary and Ernest Too Close to See

Albert J. Defazio III

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pp. 40-60

There’s a wonderful moment in Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye when Holden and Phoebe are alone in the pitch darkness of her bedroom, their mother having just kissed her good night, oblivious of her son’s presence. After Mrs. Caulfield leaves, Holden tries to locate Phoebe, the adoring younger sister whose...

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Chapter 6: The Fishing Was Good Too Cuban Writer Claims Torrid Love Affair with Jane Mason Drew Hemingway to Havana

William E. Deibler

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pp. 61-71

While many North American scholars still debate whether Ernest Hemingway and Jane Kendall Mason were lovers, Cuban writer Enrique Cirules has no doubts. In his book Ernest Hemingway in the Romano Archipelago, he asserts unequivocally that the two had “an intense and scandalous love affair” (23) that...

Part 2: The Cuban Works To Have and Have Not

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pp. 72-74

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Chapter 7: The State of Things in Cuba A Letter to Hemingway

Richard Armstrong, Introduction by Larry Grimes

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pp. 75-83

To insure accuracy in his portrayal of the more recent revolutionary activities he wanted to include in To Have and Have Not, Hemingway asked journalist Richard Armstrong to provide him with a summary of detailed newspaper accounts of the uprising. Hemingway had known Armstrong since at least 1933, when...

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Chapter 8: Selection from “It is hard for you to tell,” Chapter Three of Cuba y Hemingway en el gran río azul (Cuba and Hemingway on the Great Blue River)

Mary Cruz, Translated by Mary Delpino

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pp. 84-101

In the art of literature, an image is not fixed on paper in the same way as a sculpture is set in stone or a painting on canvas, or even music on a score. The fictional world that the reader perceives is reconstructed in his imagination, bit by bit, from written clues, much like a jigsaw puzzle is put together as each piece is found...

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Chapter 9: The “Matter of Being Expatriots” Hemingway, Cuba, and Inter-American Literary Study

Scott O. McClintock

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pp. 102-122

As a comparatist specializing in U.S.–Latin American relations in literature and culture, I view Ernest Hemingway’s greater-than-two-decade association with Cuba as one of the most compelling cases for inter-American study. Hemingway’s affiliation with Cuba supervenes in the experience of the Paris exile as the...

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Chapter 10: A Shared Palette Hemingway and Winslow Homer, Painters of the Gulf Stream

Charlene M. Murphy

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pp. 123-130

In an October 1928 letter to his good friend Waldo Peirce, Hemingway complained about an exhibition he had seen at the Art Institute of Chicago: except for two works by Peirce himself, the show was worthless. However, Hemingway then wrote about his intense response to the Winslow Homer paintings on display: “But by Christ they have some Winslow Homers that give me the same...

Part 3:The Old Man and the Sea

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Chapter 11:“I am not religious, . . . But . . .” The Virgin of El Cobre and Cuban Catholicism a mi propia manera

Alma Derojas

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pp. 133-149

“I am not religious,” says Santiago in The Old Man and the Sea. “But I will say ten Our Fathers and ten Hail Marys that I should catch this fish, and I promise to make a pilgrimage to the Virgin of Cobre if I catch him. That is a promise” (71). For nearly four centuries Cubans have made similar promises to La Virgen...

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Chapter 12: Hemingway’s Religious Odyssey The Afro-Cuban Connection in Two Stories and The Old Man and the Sea

Larry Grimes

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pp. 150-164

In the summer of 1995, as I toured Hemingway’s home, I saw in the upper right quadrant of the desk in his study off the little bedroom at the Finca Vigía a curious cluster of articles: a card printed with “The Prayer of St. Ignatius,” a small carved African mask, and an ashtray containing lucky stones and curative...

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Chapter 13:“You Know the Name Is No Accident” Hemingway and the Matter of Santiago

H. R. Stoneback

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pp. 165-179

For many years I shared the widespread assumption of many Hemingway readers and critics that The Old Man and the Sea was his most direct and straightforward work of fiction; that all that was there for the getting was more or less on the surface; that the “iceberg theory” did not apply to this work; that...

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Chapter 14: “Papa” and Fidel Cold War, Cuba, and Two Interpretive Communities

Yoichiro Miyamoto

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pp. 180-194

Ernest Hemingway’s 1952 novella, The Old Man and the Sea, portraying an old fisherman’s mythic struggle with a gigantic fish, is an apolitical fiction as far as its thematic content is concerned. The milieu in which this novella was published, however, was highly political. The Old Man and the Sea appeared in the days of McCarthyism, when many writers were forced to abandon their

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Chapter 15: Into the Terrain of the Bull Hemingway’s “The Undefeated”

Ann Putnam

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pp. 194-209

In his Reader’s Guide to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway, Paul Smith suggests that the story “The Undefeated” reveals a “pattern” of action that would come to “[serve] Hemingway well in later fiction” (108). Though Smith does not specifically mention The Old Man and the Sea, his comment is significant because it implies that there is indeed an overreaching pattern evident...

Part 4: Island in the Stream

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pp. 210-212

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Chapter 16: Death by Drowning Trauma Theory and Islands in the Stream

Kim Moreland

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pp. 213-228

Islands in the Stream has attracted relatively little attention from readers and critics, in part because of its posthumous publication and vexed composition history.1 But such explanations do not hold up for A Moveable Feast, embraced by readers and critics alike, and The Garden of Eden, which has garnered great...

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Chapter 17: Sea of Plenty The Artist’s Role in Islands in the Stream

Lawrence R. Broer

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pp. 229-242

In his review of James Mellow’s biography, Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences, Donald Lyons reminds us how much of Hemingway’s writing is about writing: “Nick, the fisherman hero of ‘Big Two-Hearted River’ . . . is not just a man escaping some unspecified awful past and healing some unspoken wound, but is a writer. The hero of The Sun Also Rises is a writer, if a journalist (as was...

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Chapter 18: Hemingway’s Impressionistic Islands

James Nagel

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pp. 243-253

By the time Grace Hall arrived in New York in 1895, the air was electric with the phenomenon of impressionism. She was there to study voice as a prelude to a life as a wife and mother, but she was also deeply interested in painting, as her frequent visits to the Art Students League testify. She had seen the French impressionists at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, the World’s Fair...

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Chapter 19: The Context of Hemingway’s Personal Art and the Caribbean Subject

Joseph M. Defalco

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pp. 254-260

In Islands in the Stream, Ernest Hemingway appropriated materials from Homer’s Odyssey, as James Joyce did before him in Ulysses. For Hemingway, however, these appropriations serve somewhat different ends than did the literary borrowings of his accomplished contemporaries, James Joyce, Ezra Pound, and T. S. Eliot. Like them, Hemingway generated a quasi-mythic and historical...

Part 4: Selected Bibliographies

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Chapter 20: Trolling the Deep Waters Hemingway’s Cuban Fiction and the Critics

Kelli A. Larson

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pp. 263-326

While many scholars have eagerly welcomed a new literary era with the arrival of the twenty-first century, critical interest in the twentieth century’s bestknown American author has yet to wane. Hemingway scholarship progresses at a feverish pace with more than two hundred articles, essays, and books published annually on the man and his work. With Hemingway studies long established as a cottage industry, finding open areas for critical exploration can...

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Chapter 21: Hemingway His Impact in the Cuban Press Today

Ned Quevedo Arnaiz

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pp. 327-354

Hemingway’s approach to Cuban topics in his narratives started with “After the Storm,” through which he expresses his disapproval of the maritime authorities responsible for sinking the ship Valbanera in the Gulf Stream. After that, Hemingway drew on Cuba, a country he loved, as a great source of inspiration...


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pp. 355-363


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pp. 364-368


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pp. 369-383

Back Cover

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p. BC-BC

E-ISBN-13: 9781612776972
E-ISBN-10: 1612776973
Print-ISBN-13: 9781606351819

Page Count: 376
Publication Year: 2013