We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE
OR

Albania at War, 1939-1945

by Bernd Fischer

Publication Year: 1999

Albania at War reviews the most important developments in Albania from the Italian invasion of the country in 1939 to the accession to power of the Albanian Communist Party and the establishment of a "people's democracy" in 1946.

Published by: Purdue University Press

Title page

pdf iconDownload PDF (29.7 KB)
 

Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF (57.8 KB)
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF (44.6 KB)
pp. vii-

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF (46.4 KB)
pp. ix-

I am greatly indebted to many friends and colleagues without whom this work would have been considerably more flawed than it is, and to the various institutions who helped to make this work possible. The encouragement of my friend and mentor, Professor Dimitrije Djordjevic, I will always gratefully acknowledge. Professors Stephen Fischer-Galati, Peter Sugar, and Nicholas...

read more

Foreword

pdf iconDownload PDF (54.8 KB)
pp. xi-xiii

Albania and its people have coursed this century in relative obscurity. That they have attracted so little attention stems in part from the country’s small size, population, and economy. Another reason is that Albania is the only nationstate in all of central Europe to have remained neutral in both world wars. Its...

Abbreviations

pdf iconDownload PDF (43.7 KB)
pp. xiv-

Note on Place-Names [Includes Image Plates]

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.7 MB)
pp. xv-ixx

read more

INTRODUCTION [Includes Image Plate]

pdf iconDownload PDF (1017.0 KB)
pp. 1-4

It is becoming increasing dif

read more

1. Count Ciano’s Invasion of Albania

pdf iconDownload PDF (208.9 KB)
pp. 5-32

The Italian invasion of April 1939, which began the war in Albania, was the culmination of centuries of Italian interest and twenty years of direct, if unsuccessful, economic and political involvement in Albania, principally under Benito Mussolini. The Straits of Otranto, which separate Albania and southern Italy by forty miles of the Adriatic Sea, have always served more as a bridge than a barrier, providing escape, a cultural span, and a convenient...

read more

2. The Construction of an Italian Albania [Includes Image Plates]

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.8 MB)
pp. 33-60

The Albania of 1939, which Ciano intended to make bloom and Mussolini hoped to use as a bulwark, presented a considerable challenge. There certainly had been some development since independence in 1912, particularly in terms of political stability and internal cohesion. But Zog’s limited constructive talent, his inability to grasp modern economics or ¤nd advisers who could, and...

read more

3. Italian Greater Albania

pdf iconDownload PDF (204.8 KB)
pp. 61-88

Ciano was willing to exaggerate Italian popularity in Albania in order to convince Mussolini to invade. Ciano could delude Mussolini, but he found self-deception, particularly following his first visit to Albania after the invasion, more difficult. Rather than receiving the warm welcome his agents had assured him, he saw overt hostility. Once the Italians had established their

read more

4. Italian Repression and the Beginning of Resistance [Includes Image Plates]

pdf iconDownload PDF (4.9 MB)
pp. 89-120

The Italians made many mistakes in Albania, not the least of which was assuming that they could win over a majority of Albanians at all. The Albanian attitude toward the Italians in 1939 ranged from indifference to suspicion to passive antipathy to hatred; by late 1940 the latter was the prevailing emotion. Unlike with their feelings about the Germans after 1943, the Albanians never...

read more

5. The Growth of Resistance and the Collapse of Italy [Includes Image Plates]

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.8 MB)
pp. 121-156

The Italians made many mistakes in Albania, not the least of which was assuming that they could win over a majority of Albanians at all. The Albanian attitude toward the Italians in 1939 ranged from indifference to suspicion to passive antipathy to hatred; by late 1940 the latter was the prevailing emotion. Unlike with their feelings about the Germans after 1943, the Albanians never...

read more

6. The German Invasion and the Construction of a German Albania

pdf iconDownload PDF (233.3 KB)
pp. 157-188

The Germans watched Italy’s decline with some alarm, recognizing that in the event of a complete collapse, their own responsibilities would increase significantly. Italian-occupied territories everywhere, including Albania, would have to be invaded and held, straining an already overburdened Wehrmacht. The Germans also realized that they had perhaps been overcautious of Italian...

read more

7. Resistance to the Germans [Includes Image Plates]

pdf iconDownload PDF (3.1 MB)
pp. 189-222

The story of Albanian resistance to the Germans is one of complexity and controversy. Although the resistance picture in Albania was by no means simple under the Italians, the arrival of the German forces contributed to the further splintering of the movement. And astute German policy did much to reduce the effectiveness of the many pieces as well as help insure the failure of...

read more

8. German Retreat and the Construction of a Stalinist Albania

pdf iconDownload PDF (240.7 KB)
pp. 223-256

The collapse of Romania and the imminent fall of Bulgaria encouraged the German high command to finalize plans for the withdrawal of army group E and part of army group F from the Balkans. Headquarters in Belgrade ordered all units, including the Twenty-first Corps, to prepare for withdrawal, so as not to be caught between the advancing Soviets and the growing partisan forces....

read more

CONCLUSION

pdf iconDownload PDF (142.1 KB)
pp. 257-274

Albania’s wartime experience began with the Italian invasion of April 1939 and ended with the German withdrawal of November 1944 and the construction of the Stalinist republic. The intervening five and a half years produced three different “Albanias“—Italian, German, and Stalinist—all of which were built, to a certain extent, on elements of artificiality. The war also produced...

read more

NOTE ON SOURCES

pdf iconDownload PDF (107.3 KB)
pp. 275-284

The task of attempting to grasp even the basics of Albania at war is not a simple one. Albania’s Stalinist past has made the researcher’s work difficult. A basic problem is that the Albanian archives remained closed to foreign scholars until the early 1990s. Further, Enver Hoxha reports that what existed in the archives prior to 1944 was destroyed in the Battle of Tirana, although this is...

NOTES

pdf iconDownload PDF (244.4 KB)
pp. 285-319

BIBLIOGRAPHY

pdf iconDownload PDF (95.0 KB)
pp. 321-327

INDEX

pdf iconDownload PDF (2.7 MB)
pp. 329-338


E-ISBN-13: 9781612490700
E-ISBN-10: 1612490700
Print-ISBN-13: 9781557531414
Print-ISBN-10: 1557531412

Page Count: 360
Publication Year: 1999

Series Title: Central European Studies
Series Editor Byline: Charles W. Ingrao, Gary B. Cohen, Franz Szabo

Recommend

UPCC logo

Subject Headings

  • Albania -- History -- Axis occupation, 1939-1944.
  • World War, 1939-1945 -- Albania.
  • You have access to this content
  • Free sample
  • Open Access
  • Restricted Access