We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

Falcon and the Eagle

Montenegro and Austria-Hungary, 1908-1914

by John Treadway

Publication Year: 1998

Treadway's work is the first comprehensive study of Montenegro's relations with her Great-Power neighbors on the eve of WWI

Published by: Purdue University Press

Title Page

pdf iconDownload PDF (14.0 KB)
pp. iii


pdf iconDownload PDF (14.2 KB)
pp. iv


pdf iconDownload PDF (80.7 KB)
pp. vii-viii

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (308.5 KB)
pp. ix-xiii

Between 1908 and 1914, Montenegro, the tiny Serb land nestled in the southwestern corner of present-day Yugoslavia, was a mouse that roared repeatedly in European affairs. A poor country whose capital was smaller than many backwater European towns, it was constantly involved in diplomatic crises, many of its own making. ...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (116.4 KB)
pp. xv-xvi

I should like to express my gratitude to the faculty and staffs of the various institutions that have permitted me to use their resources, both human and material, in the preparation of this manuscript. In particular, I thank the interlibrary loan divisions of Alderman Library, University of Virginia; Newman Library, ...

read more

A Note on Names

pdf iconDownload PDF (113.6 KB)
pp. xvii-xix

As the places mentioned in this study frequently have different spellings (indeed, different names) in the various Western and Balkan languages, whenever possible I have used the accepted English form of a foreign toponymy: thus, Vienna instead of Wi en; Scutari in lieu of Shkoder or Skodra; Belgrade instead of Beograd. ...

read more

CHAPTER ONE - The Setting

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.5 MB)
pp. 1-21

In 1908, a year of great political upheaval in the Balkan peninsula, Montenegro was not the same small island she had been in centuries past, yet H. C. Darby's pithy paragraph still tells us much about the land of the Black Mountain in the early twentieth century. To begin with, Montenegro was small. ...

read more

CHAPTER TWO - The Annexation Crisis, I: 1908

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.4 MB)
pp. 22-39

The unenviable task of informing Prince Nicholas of Vienna's intentions toward Bosnia and Hercegovina fell to the AustroHungarian minister in Cetinje, Baron Franz Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld. Unknown to him at the time, the prince had already learned of the impending annexation through Russian sources, and he expected the announcement. 1 ...

read more

CHAPTER THREE - The Annexation Crisis, II: 1909

pdf iconDownload PDF (729.2 KB)
pp. 40-50

While Field Marshal Conrad honed his saber, Aehrenthal continued to seek a peaceful solution to the problem he had created for himself and Europe. As he confided to Josef Redlich, the situation was so bad that he had decided to come to terms with the Ottoman Empire.1 By New Year's Day 1909, negotiations with the Porte were well under way. ...

read more

CHAPTER FOUR - From Kolruin to Jubilee: 1909-1910

pdf iconDownload PDF (960.4 KB)
pp. 51-65

Montenegro's diplomatic situation changed little between the spring and autumn of 1909. The tiny Balkan land still chafed at the treatment accorded it during the annexation crisis by Austria-Hungary and the other Great Powers, including its traditional Russian benefactor. ...

read more

CHAPTER FIVE - The Malissori Uprisings: 1910-1911

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.4 MB)
pp. 66-86

Mary Edith Durham, the intrepid English writer and champion of Albanian causes, concluded that little good would come of Nicholas's new royal standing. "One point both Montenegrins and Albanians agreed upon," she related. "'A king must have a kingdom. The Powers would not otherwise have allowed him to be king. Soon there will be war.' "1

read more

CHAPTER SIX - The Road to War: 1911-1912

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.7 MB)
pp. 87-111

No sooner had the Albanian question been set aside than a new crisis erupted in North Africa, one with even more serious implications for peace in the Balkans. After France had tightened her hold on Morocco in 1911, the Italian government moved to realize its imperial ambitions in Tripoli. ...

read more

CHAPTER SEVEN - The Outbreak of the First Balkan War: 1912-1913

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.5 MB)
pp. 112-134

The shelling of Planinica, which Nicholas staged with such ceremony, forced a hasty Turkish retreat, and Montenegrins had their first taste of victory only hours after they had begun their attack. On 12 October, General Janko Vukotic, commander of the Eastern Army, took Bijelo Polje; four days later Berane fell. ...

read more

CHAPTER EIGHT - The Scutari Crisis: 1913

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.5 MB)
pp. 135-158

Nicholas's renewed attack on Scutari prompted the European Powers to initiate a naval demonstration along the Montenegrin coast. The crisis was front-page news throughout April and early May, as all of Europe wondered whether the international naval action would succeed in bringing the recalcitrant Balkan kingdom to its knees and in the process eliminate the growing possibility of a general European war. ...

read more

CHAPTER NINE - From Scutari to Sarajevo: 1913-1914

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.6 MB)
pp. 159-181

In the wake of the Scutari crisis, Montenegro marked time. While Nicholas contemplated how to finance the costly enterprises of the past few months and to consolidate his territorial gains, his erstwhile Balkan allies-Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria-bickered over the spoils of the First Balkan War. ...

read more

CHAPTER TEN - Into Armageddon--The Outbreak of War: 1914

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.1 MB)
pp. 182-199

On 28 June 1914, in the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo, a Serb nationalist shot and killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the thrones of Austria and Hungary, and his wife, the Duchess of Hohenberg. It was a Sunday, St. Vitus's Day (Vidov dan), the 525th anniversary of Serbia's tragic defeat on the plain of Kosovo. ...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (794.7 KB)
pp. 201-212

In the decade before World War I, Montenegro exercised political influence far out of proportion to her small size and meager resources. This stemmed, in part, from the ambitions of her sovereign; from her location in the volatile Balkans, a region of conflicting nationalist aspirations and Great-Power rivalries; and from her threatening position at Austria's back door. Cetinje, her unimposing mountain capital, was the site of constant ...


pdf iconDownload PDF (6.3 MB)
pp. 213-295


pdf iconDownload PDF (1.7 MB)
pp. 297-326


pdf iconDownload PDF (1.7 MB)
pp. 327-349

E-ISBN-13: 9781612490632
E-ISBN-10: 1612490638
Print-ISBN-13: 9781557531469
Print-ISBN-10: 1557531463

Page Count: 280
Publication Year: 1998