Battle for the Fourteenth Colony
America's War of Liberation in Canada, 1774-1776
Publication Year: 2013
This thoroughly researched and action-packed history will appeal to American and Canadian history buffs and military experts alike.
Published by: University Press of New England
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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This book originated in 2006, while I was serving as a military planner, co-ordinating support for the United States’ endeavors to liberate and spread democracy to foreign peoples in Afghanistan and Iraq. During that duty, I re-flected on my studies in Professor Hal Shelton’s American Military University graduate course on Canada in the American Revolution and recognized an ...
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I owe many thanks for the wide-ranging assistance offered in the five-year course of research generating this book. The kind staffs at the New-York Historical Society, the Library and Archives Canada, and the Bibliotheque et Archives Nationale de Québec were tremendously helpful as I launched my first research efforts and pored through their exquisite and wonderfully ...
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The Canada expedition is one of those measures which the enemies of American peace having first rendered necessary, will now strive to misconstrue into hostility and offence. | William Smith, “Oration The American Revolution’s Quebec Campaign of 1775–1776 has generally re-mained a footnote in the histories of both the United States and Canada. In ...
1 | The Only Link Wanting
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...and Strong Chain of Union. | Continental Congress, “Address to the Inhabitants On 26 October 1774, the fifty-two distinguished delegates of the first Conti-nental Congress prepared to conclude their session; it was an unprecedented attempt to resolve the escalating political crisis in British North America while defending colonial rights. Before the representatives departed from ...
2 | New Subjects to the King
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The Inhabitants & Chiefly the Peasantry seem very happy in the Change of their Masters. | Colonel Ralph Burton, “Report of the State of the In addressing its letter to the “Inhabitants” of Quebec, the first Continental Congress was communicating with several audiences in that province. Not only were there French-Canadians and Anglo-Protestants who had settled ...
3 | Fuel for Rebellion
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The King trusts that when the Provisions of [the Quebec Act] have taken placeuni00A0.uni00A0.uni00A0. prejudices which popular Clamour has excited will cease, and that His Majesty’s Subjects of every description will see and be convinced of the Equity and good Policy of the Bill. | Secretary of State Dartmouth to Governor Quebec’s New French heritage had an undeniable influence on Canadien views ...
4 | Authors and Agitators
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I dare say will be attended with great and good effects. | Samuel Adams In September and October 1774, coincidental developments in Canada and Philadelphia generated a slow convergence of two growing political crises: the struggle over Canada’s form of government, and the Continental colonies’ conflict with the Ministry. The Quebec Act helped draw both movements ...
5 | Preemptive Strikes
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John Brown to the Boston Committee of Correspondence, 29 March 1775Lieutenant William Lindsay, “Narrative of the Invasion of Canada . . .”The Quebec Act went into effect on 1 May 1775, despite British Party calls for repeal. That morning, as Montréal’s citizens stirred and soldiers called their morning roll, a shocking sight was discovered in the Place d’Armes. Under ...
6 | That Damned Absurd Word "Liberty"
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The Quebeck Bill is of no use; on the contrary, the Canadians talk of that damned absurd word liberty. | Thomas Gamble to Major Shirref, These attempts of the seigniors have so disgusted the peasants of the seignioriesuni00A0.uni00A0.uni00A0. that they have broke out into acts of open violence to resist In Montréal, the atmosphere relaxed somewhat by the end of May, as the ...
7 | To Erect the Glorious Standard of American Liberty in Canada
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We are to leave this place, and set out on our march for St. John’s, in order to erect the glorious standard of American liberty in Canada, the colony that now groans under British Tyranny! | Extract of a letter from an Officer in the Even after Ethan Allen and the Connecticut expedition seized Ticonderoga for the patriot cause, the confederated colonies continued to have reason to ...
8 | The Canadians Opened the Road
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The Canadians opened the Road and led them by the hand to the very gates of the Capital. | John Bonfield to Robert Morris, 4 February 1776When the Continental Northern Army sailed down Lake Champlain at the end of August 1775, it was led by a man who had been an “American” for only three years, Brigadier-General Richard Montgomery. An Irish-...
9 | The Treachery and Villainy of the Canadians
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What Contributed most to the loss of the Country is the treachery and Villainy of the Canadians. | Colonel Allan Maclean, Royal Highland Emigrants, After Ethan Allen’s Longue-Pointe defeat, archradical Thomas Walker’s days were numbered. Interrogated after the battle, rebel prisoners implicated Walker in the affair, describing his promise to join them with hundreds of ...
10 | Another Path to the Heart of Quebec
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Matters grew daily worse & worse; the insolence of the habitants was insufferable. | Loyalist account from Québec City, in the “Journal of the Most The inhabitants have been very kind to us since we have been among them. | Rhode Island soldier Caleb Haskell, Chaudière Valley, 8 November 1775Meanwhile, far from the rebel Northern Army, Quebec and Three Rivers Dis-...
11 | To Winter in Canada
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The inhabitants are very friendly and give all the assistance they dare to do at present. | Colonel Benedict Arnold to General Richard Montgomery, The Enemy without, however, are not to be dreaded as much as their numerous Friends in the Town. | Lieutenant-Governor Hector Cramahé to Montgomery’s Northern Army rapidly departed from the St-Jean area within ...
12 | Time to Consider Politics
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If We should be successful in that Province, a momentous, political Question arises. What is to be done with it? | John Adams to Joseph Warren, Philadelphia, I am entirely of your Opinion that We shall be undone unless the most spirited Measures are pursued. | Rhode Island Delegate Samuel Ward to Henry Even before the fall of Fort Chambly, New Hampshire delegates believed: ...
13 | Contest of Wills at Québec
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I fear the Canadians will not relish a union with the Colonies, till they see the whole Country in our hands. | General Richard Montgomery to General Let not one small disaster among so many noble deeds, discourage the Sons Isolated behind Québec City’s ramparts, loyalists were disgusted by the un-willingness of the habitants to bring provisions into the capital following ...
14 | The Question of Loyalists
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Would it not be prudent to seize on those Tories who have been, are, and that we know will be active against us? | General George Washington to Rhode General Wooster is taking the most prudent and spirited measures to put it in the best order possible. | A Continental Officer writing from Montréal, 2 While Québec City had a vital role in the United Colonies’ military effort, ...
15 | A Critical Month
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This affair puts a very different face upon our interests in this country; however, we must make the best of it. | General David Wooster to General There are still in this province certain ill-disposed persons who wish to damage the common cause which we uphold. | General David Wooster to On 3 January 1776, frozen, road-worn Canadian Edward Antill arrived in ...
16 | Evolving Occupation
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There are so many Civil and Political Affairs that require the greatest Care and most Delicate Management. | General David Wooster to the Continental A crueler dictatorship had never been seen. | Simon Sanguinet “To the With renewed confidence at the end of January 1776, General David Wooster decided it was time to confront the Montréal militia officers decisively on ...
17 | A Spirit of Cooperation and Understanding
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This district laying between the army of Quebec and Montreal I conceive to be the quietest part of Canada at present. | Captain William Goforth to John The United Colonies’ adventure in Canada was heavily focused on Montréal and Québec City. While the province’s third city, Trois-Rivières, had a rela-tively minor role in the overall campaign, it offers a particularly interesting ...
18 | Patriot Zealots
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They have stirred the people, enlisted them for the service of Congress, and ridiculed and threatened royalists. | Baby-Taschereau-Williams Commission, on Germain Dionne and Clément Gosselin, Ste-Anne-de-la-Pocatière, 13 July 1776The Habitants below Point Levy are ready to take arms to drive the Bostonois out of the Country, they have no cash, they begin to hang their ...
19 | Spring of Unrest
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The Canadians taking up Arms so early against us, is of the most Important consequence. | Colonel Moses Hazen to General Philip Schuyler, Even as Captains Clément Gosselin and Pierre Ayotte roved the south-shore parishes recruiting Canadian Continentals, loyalist resistance began to congeal in the very same region (see Map 10). Ste-Anne-de-la-Pocatière’s ...
20 | A Late-Changing Cast
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I must confess I have very great Confidence, in the Abilities and Integrity, the Political Principles and good Disposition of this Committee. | A General Thomas, (lately an Apothecary), was on his way with 1200 men to join the Rebels in Canada, where they may arrive the beginning of May. | Journal of the Siege and Blockade of Quebec . . . , 23 April 1776...
21 | May Tides
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Your Commissioners themselves are in a critical and most irksome Situation, pestered hourly with Demands great and small that they cannot answer. | Commissioners to Canada to John Hancock, President of Congress, In the most irregular, helter skelter manner we raised the siege, leaving every Following their 26 March departure from Philadelphia, Benjamin Franklin, ...
22 | The Sad Necessity of Abandoning Canada
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Our Affairs have taken a Strange turn Since our Arrival. The Canadians are Flocking by Hundreds to take a part with us. | General John Sullivan to The junction of the Canadians with the Colonies, an object which brought us into this Country is now at an End, let us quit them & Secure our own Country before it is too late. | General Benedict Arnold to General John ...
23 | The Causes of the Miscarriages in Canada
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To cure them, It must be first known what are the Causes; & the State physicians must be fully convinced of them before they can apply a Remedy. | His Majesty commands me to acquaint you that there still remains another part of your duty to be undertaken which will require all your abilities and the strictest application: the restoring peace and the establishing good order ...
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Indeed there was benevolence in the whole plan of his expedition. It was to be executed not so much by force as by persuasion. | William Smith’s “Oration We now have many enemies among us which might have been friends to the cause, had a Committee of sensible men been sent up from the Congress with some money, to regulate the policy of the Country. | George Measam to ...
Appendix 1: Canadian Voices
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Appendix 2: The Polarized Legacy of General David Wooster
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Page Count: 432
Publication Year: 2013