Continuing Medical Education
Looking Back, Planning Ahead
Publication Year: 2011
The essays in this volume tell the history and evolution of CME in the United States and Canada, but also look toward future issues and developments. Contributors from a diverse array of institutions explore CME's emergence from undergraduate medical education and its separate growth and development, key events and breakthroughs, lessons learned, conflicts, and predictions about the future in their area of expertise. Addressing critical issues, such as industry support for CME, the volume offers a vital tool for continuing medical education professionals, physicians, administrators, and all health care practitioners interested in the future of continuous education and quality patient care.
Published by: Dartmouth College Press
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When I graduated from Cornell University Medical College in 1941, I thought I was brimful of knowledge, ready to be a doctor and to bring my skills to patients. Little did I know that my learning had just begun and, even more important, that much that I had been taught would soon...
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On behalf of the contributors, I wish to extend an important and warm thank you to those numerous individuals who aided us in writing this comprehensive history of continuing medical education and continuing professional development. Your valuable knowledge, time, and help made...
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Friday evening, after a long day of patient care, a physician sits down to complete some paperwork before heading home for a quick dinner and going to see her children in a school play. She has seen several patients with complex medical problems, prompting several questions she is unable...
PART I: Reflections at the Beginning
1. Lifelong Medical Education: Past, Present, Future
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To ensure quality medical care, the medical profession and society both rely heavily on lifelong learning by physicians. Although many other factors are necessary for optimal patient care, highly informed physicians are essential. Advances in medical research leading to improved diagnosis...
2. National Approaches to Continuing Medical Education: Recurring Attempts, No Finality
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It is almost impossible to determine when the idea of a national plan and philosophy for continuing medical education (CME) in the United States was first conceived. Chapter 1 of this book references the 1906 effort of the American Medical Association (AMA) to encourage county...
3. Is There a Continuum of Medical Education? Fact versus Fiction
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Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that we live in an era of global health. In late 2008, a joint Sino-US conference was held at Johns Hopkins University that focused largely on the components of global health. Many themes emerged from this conference, with the most...
PART II: Organizations in the Early Development of Continuing Medical Education in the United States
4. The American Academy of Family Physicians Contribution to Continuing Medical Education
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The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), founded in 1947, is one of the largest national medical specialty societies, representing more than 94,000 family physicians, family medicine residents, and medical students. Its vision is to transform health care to achieve optimal...
5. Continuing Medical Education and the American Medical Association: An Educational Journey
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This is the story of the American Medical Association (AMA) and its role in continuing medical education (CME) and continuing physician professional development (CPPD) during its 163 years of existence. The AMA has been a major force in American medical education while...
6. The American Osteopathic Association Continuing Medical Education Program
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The American Osteopathic Association (AOA), originally called the American Association for the Advancement of Osteopathy, was founded in 1887. The name was officially changed to the AOA in 1901. The AOA is a member association representing more than 70,000 osteopathic...
7. Continuing Medical Education at the Association of American Medical Colleges
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A membership association reflects the values, experiences, and needs of its members. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)— with 125 years of history—is no exception to that rule. The story of continuing medical education (CME)—the last, longest, and arguably the...
8. The Key Role of the State Medical Societies in Continuing Medical Education
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Prior to 1900, a doctor usually apprenticed with a practicing physician and took medical school lectures to complement years of practice. Proprietary medical schools augmented a number of university associated medical schools. Medical education included lectures, with formal clinical...
9. Medical Specialty Societies: Innovation in Meeting Physician Member Needs
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The adage ‘‘birds of a feather flock together’’ holds true for specialty societies. As medicine became differentiated in the late 1800s and early 1900s, physicians began to coalesce around common areas of interest, and specialty societies were formed. Among the mission of almost every...
PART III: Newer Institutions and Organizations in Continuing Medical Education
10. The Accreditation of Continuing Medical Education: The Early Years
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Continuing medical education (CME) has probably been around as long as doctors have been practicing medicine, but it was never formalized, accredited, or regulated in the United States until well after World War...
11. Instituting National Standards for Continuing Medical Education: The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education
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The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME�) was founded in January 1981 in order to create a national accreditation system. The ACCME purpose is to oversee a voluntary, self-regulatory process for the accreditation of institutions that provide continuing...
12. Evolution of the Society of Medical College Directors of Continuing Medical Education into the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education
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In 1990, James Leist, president of the Society for Medical College Directors of CME (known today as the Society for Academic CME ‘‘[SACME]), persuaded Richard Caplan, MD, to accept the task of recounting the history of SACME. That history, reprinted in part within the section of this chapter...
13. Organizations of Continuing Medical Education Professionals: The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Association for Hospital Medical Education, and the Canadian Association for Continuing Health Education
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This chapter highlights the role and development of three of the key organizations that support and foster continuing medical education (CME) in the United States and Canada. The history of the fourth—the Society for Academic CME, the sponsoring organization behind this book—is...
14. Contemporary Organizations That Influence Continuing Medical Education in the United States: The National Task Force on CME Provider/Industry Collaboration and the North American Association of Medical Education and Communication Companies
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As continuing medical education (CME) matured in the 1990s, new entities came into play that affected the field of CME. This chapter describes two of them. The National Task Force on CME Provider/Industry Collaboration (National Task Force) was created in 1990. The National...
PART IV: Physician Learning: Research in Continuing Medical Education and Continuing Professional Development
15. Research in Continuing Medical Education
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Research in continuing medical education (CME) has made important contributions to our understanding of how physicians learn and how CME activities support the translation of learning into practice and will lead to improved patient care. Even as CME has developed and become...
16. The History of Evidence-Based Continuing Medical Education in the United States
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The American Academy of General Practice (AAGP), now the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), was the first medical specialty society to require ongoing continuing medical education (CME) for continued membership. In response to its bylaws of incorporation in...
17. Four Pillars in the Evolution of Continuing Medical Education
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In any essay on history, the dates and events need to be correct but the analysis fails if no themes emerge that help readers to understand and explain the present based on the past. Currently, in continuing professional development (CPD),� I have seen and heard evidence of many...
PART V: Continuing Medical Education and Continuing Professional Development in Canada
18. The Evolution of Continuing Medical Education in Canada
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The story of continuing medical education (CME) in Canada traces the origins of concepts and ideas, the evolution of processes and structures, and the assessment of impacts, all of which influenced and directed the development of CME in Canada. While physicians and healers long...
19. A History of the Committee on the Accreditation of Continuing Medical Education—Canada
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One reasonable reading of the last one hundred years of medical education in North America would indicate that the medical profession is readily committed to visiting educational rigor and surveillance on those who presume to enter the profession but most reluctant to apply the same...
20. The Evolution of Continuing Professional Development at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada: Setting Standards for Canadian Specialists
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The major role envisioned for the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, when it was created by an Act of Parliament on June 14, 1929, was to develop national standards for specialty education and establish the certification process by which specialty designation and...
21. The College of Family Physicians of Canada: Continuing Medical Education and Continuing Professional Development in Canada
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Continuing medical education (CME) has been an integral part of the College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) since its beginning in 1954 at the Palomar Supper Club in Vancouver, British Columbia. Even before that first meeting, Victor Johnston, MD, who was to become the first...
PART VI: The External Environment of Continuing Medical Education
22. Regulation of Continuing Medical Education in the United States: A Historical Perspective and View of the Future
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When compared to undergraduate and graduate medical education, continuing medical education (CME) spans the longest portion of a physician’s career. However, in the United States, the development of formal structures to standardize requirements evolved rather slowly. Across the...
23. Industry Support of Continuing Medical Education and Continuing Professional Development: A Perspective on the Past and Implications for the Future of Pharmaceutical and Device Company Support
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In recent years the pharmaceutical and medical device industries have adopted new procedures and policies such as the PhRMA and AdvaMed codes to support continuing medical education (CME) activities that contribute to physician knowledge, application of skills, improved...
PART VII: Emerging Themes and Forces in Continuing Medical Education
24. Continuing Professional Development: Concept, Origins, and Rationale
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The move toward using the term continuing professional development (CPD) to replace the traditional term of continuing medical education (CME) is now a global movement and has huge implications for all stakeholders involved in the education of practicing physicians. It is regularly used...
25. Contemporary Developments in Continuing Medical Education and Continuing Professional Development
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‘‘All experience is an arch wherethro’ gleams that yet untravel’d world, whose margin fades for ever and for ever when I move,’’ wrote Tennyson in his poem about the travels of the ancient Greek hero Ulysses. It is a passage that beautifully captures the transition from current experience to the...
26. Continuing Interprofessional Education: Collaborative Learning for Collaborative Practice
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This chapter traces the development of continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) and illuminates present challenges and opportunities. Interprofessional education (IPE) in the United States occurred first as informal CIPE, emerging and re-emerging in various forms up to the...
27. The Maintenance of Certification Program from the American Board of Medical Specialties and Its Member Boards
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The American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) is the umbrella organization for 24 medical specialty certifying boards. The ABMS mission is to maintain and improve the quality of medical care by assisting its member boards in their efforts to develop professional and...
28. The National Commission for Certification of Continuing Medical Education Professionals and Its Certification Program
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As with any new field of endeavor, discussion and debate have surrounded the question of raising continuing medical education (CME) to the level of a profession since early in its evolution. Individuals engaged in developing CME have come from a variety of disciplines, including...
29. Continuing Medical Education and Continuing Professional Development in Europe: The New Reality
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The most exciting place to be in the world of continuing medical education (CME) is just that: the world. CME is becoming a fact of life—and of continued practice—for physicians in many countries, especially those in the European Union...
30. Continuing Medical Education for the World: Spreading to Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East
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Formal systems of continuing medical education (CME) are expanding rapidly for physicians in Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Mandatory CME is not as prevalent as in the United States and Europe, but it does exist in a number of countries, particularly those that once...
PART VIII: Reflections on Moving toward the Future
31. The Meaning and Value of Continuing Medical Education
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Continuing medical education (CME) has various stakeholders that influence and are influenced by CME. Those stakeholders include individual physicians and the medical profession as a whole, who are the direct beneficiaries of CME; patients and society in general, who are the...
32. Continuing Medical Education in an Era of Health-Care Reform: A Dartmouth Perspective
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Profound changes in society, technology, and the economy of the United States and elsewhere are driving dramatic and persistent transformation of the practice of medicine and, thus, the education of physicians. Predicted challenges for training tomorrow’s doctors are here...
About the Editor and Contributors
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Page Count: 428
Publication Year: 2011