Protagoras and Logos
A Study in Greek Philosophy and Rhetoric
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of South Carolina Press
Download PDF (30.9 KB)
Title Page, Copyright
Download PDF (32.8 KB)
Download PDF (61.0 KB)
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
Download PDF (87.1 KB)
I begin by expressing my gratitude to the University of South Carolina Press for publishing this revised edition of Protagoras and Logos. My sincere thanks to Tom Benson and Barry Blose for their support of this project, and to Wilfred E. Major and John T. Kirby for their helpful sug The changes in the book from the first edition can be described as fol ...
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
Download PDF (45.3 KB)
A new full-length study of Protagoras and his contribution to early Greek thought is long overdue. Although there is a sizable amount of excellent scholarship concerning Protagoras, much of it tends to be hobbled by one or more problems. Many studies begin with such hostile assump tions about the Sophists that a reasonably productive picture of Protago ...
Download PDF (49.0 KB)
The following study began as my doctoral dissertation at Northwestern University. I wish to thank Leland M. Griffin for chairing my committee and for providing needed encouragement. Thanks also to Michael J. Hyde, Charles Kauffman, and David Zarefsky for serving on my com The first section of chapter 3, "Did Plato Coin Rhetorike?," originally ...
TRANSLATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Download PDF (93.3 KB)
Unless otherwise noted, English translations of Greek authors are from the following sources: for Plato, Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns, The Collected Dialogues of Plato (Princeton University Press, 1961); for Aristotle, Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle, 2 vols. (Princeton University Press, 1984); for other ancient authors, see the ...
PART IPROLEGOMENON TOTHE STUDY OF EARLYGREEK RHETORICAL THEORY
Download PDF (9.6 KB)
1WHY A STUDY OF PROTAGORAS?
Download PDF (946.8 KB)
An important part of comprehending the place of Protagoras, the first and most influential of the Older Sophists, is understanding how the profession he helped to spawn was perceived in ancient Greek thought and in subsequent histories of thought. So many of the issues concerning the Sophists are shrouded in controversy that it is difficult even to begin ...
2INTERPRETING ANCIENT FRAGMENTS
Download PDF (1.0 MB)
Plucked out of context and dropped into the twentieth century, the few extant lines by Protagoras appear trivial if not nonsensical. Not only are there pitifully few statements attributed to Protagoras, but much of what is available has been filtered through sources not altogether friendly to Protagoras' project.1 T. A. Sinclair, deploring the scanty remains of ...
3THE "INVENTION" OF RHETORIC
Download PDF (1.4 MB)
One of the objectives of this book is to identify Protagoras' contribu tions to fifth-century rhetorical theory and practice. Before those contri butions can be recovered, a certain amount of ground-clearing is neces sary. Most scholarship concerning sophistic rhetoric is informed by what has become the "standard account" of the early history of rhetorical ...
4TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OFSOPHISTIC THEORIES OF RHETORIC
Download PDF (1.2 MB)
Even though the available evidence suggests that the Sophists did not use the term rhetorike to describe their teachings, a recovery of their ideas about rhetorical theory is both possible and desirable. It is possible because the fifth-century Sophists' logos was an obvious predecessor to (even if it cannot be limited to} fourth-century rhetoreia and rhetorike. ...
PART IIANALYSIS OF THE MAJORFRAGMENTSOFPROTAGORAS
Download PDF (9.2 KB)
5THE TWO-LOGO! FRAGMENT
Download PDF (710.2 KB)
The Greek text of what I will refer to as the two-logoi fragment is the following: Kat np&LOc; E
6THE "STRONGER AND WEAKER"LOGO! FRAGMENT
Download PDF (752.9 KB)
The full Greek text of the stronger/weaker logoi fragment is found in Aristotle's Rhetoric: Kai 'tO tov ~'t'tw 6£ J...Oyov KpEL't'tW JtOLELV tout' EO'tLV (1402a23). Stripped of the introductory "And this is [an example] what one means by ... " the remaining text reads ton hetto de logon kreitto poiein. Two categories of translation and interpretation are iden ...
7THE "HUMAN-MEASURE" FRAGMENT
Download PDF (928.2 KB)
The Greek text of the human-measure fragment is: Ilavnov XPTJI!UToov !!ETpov EOTLV avepoon:o~. TWV !!EV OVTOOV 00~ EOTLV' TWV (>£ OUK OVTOOV oo~ ouK EOTLV (DK 80 Bl). Given the fame of this doctrine and that it is widely quoted in virtually identical language, there is no reason to doubt it represents Protagoras' own words.1 The world view implicit in the ...
8THE "IMPOSSIBLE TO CONTRADICT" FRAGMENT
Download PDF (359.4 KB)
Unlike the fragments I have already examined, there is nowhere a passage that represents the "impossible to contradict" statement un equivocally as Protagoras' original words. However, some combination of the words occur sufficiently often in ancient discussions of Protagoras to convince most scholars that it was part of his philosophy. What is ...
9THE "CONCERNING THE GODS" FRAGMENT
Download PDF (680.2 KB)
...fragment is Protagoras' best-known saying. It is quoted in whole or in part by Diogenes Laertius (9.51), Hesychius (DK 80 A3), Sextus Em piricus (All), Cicero (A23), and Eusebius (B4); it is mentioned or para phrased by Philostratus (A2), Philodemus (A23), Diogenes of Oenoando The fragment consists of two sentences: 1) rtepi !lEV ee&v OUK EXW ...
PART IIIPROT AGORAS AND EARLYGREEK PHILOSOPHY AND RHETORIC
Download PDF (9.4 KB)
10PROT AGORAS AND
Download PDF (989.9 KB)
Clear-cut conceptual categories such as political theory, ethics, educa tional philosophy, and rhetorical theory were nascent at best in the mid-fifth century. Though any scholarly analysis of fifth-century think ing is bound to engage in a certain amount of oversimplification, it is possible to minimize the risk of misreading Protagoras' words. In such ...
11PROT AGORAS, LOGOS,AND THE POLIS
Download PDF (802.0 KB)
I turn now to Protagoras' theory of logos and its implications for social-political theory. It has long been recognized that Protagoras' hu man-measure fragment presented a viewpoint supportive of Periclean democracy, but the political implications of Protagoras' general views On one level or another, significant philosophical disourse always ...
12PROTAGORAS "VERSUS"PLATO AND ARISTOTLE
Download PDF (325.6 KB)
The long-standing tradition is that the paucity of extant fragments by Protagoras is due in large measure to the treatment his teachings received by Plato and Aristotle. There is both truth and falsity in this tradition. It is true that the neglect of the Sophists' writings by members of Aristotle's Lyceum contributed to the loss of those writings. It is also ...
13PROT AGORAS' LEGACYTO RHETORICAL THEORY
Download PDF (431.0 KB)
This chapter will pull together some of the arguments offered in previ ous chapters in order to summarize Protagoras' contributions to rhetori cal theory.1 My objective is to identify those aspects of his theory and practice that functioned paradigmatically, i.e., as exemplars or "shared examples" for imitation and development.2 To begin with, Protagoras ...
Download PDF (630.0 KB)
It has been over a decade since publications by Thomas Cole (The Ori gins of Rhetoric in Ancient Greece) and myself challenged assumptions that informed traditional and revisionist accounts of "sophistic rhetoric." Traditional accounts, largely based on Plato's unflattering portrayals of fifth and fourth century BCE Sophists, had reduced the historical role of ...
Download PDF (76.4 KB)
The scant evidence concerning the basic details of Protagoras' life is collected in several widely available sources.1 My purpose here is not to analyze the evi dence, but to provide a brief summary for those not already familiar with the literature.2 The following outline is based on the chronologies provided by J. S. Morrison and J. A. Davison.3 All dates are approximations: the years indicated ...
Download PDF (357.1 KB)
The Thesauraus Linguae Graecae (hereafter TLG) project is in the process of completing a comprehensive computer-based data bank of all available ancient Greek texts.1 It is, therefore, an invaluable resource for researchers interested in the history of Greek words such as pl)tOpLKTJ. My hypothesis that Plato's Gor gias represents our earliest instance of PlJtOpLKTJ was formed on the basis of ...
Download PDF (190.8 KB)
There are two ancient references to Protagoras and one assignment of author ship that I have not previously discussed. All three ascriptions deserve mention Aristotle's Physics (250a19-22) makes reference to what is now commonly referred to as Zeno's millet seed argument, and it is presented in a fuller version In this way [Aristotle] solves the problem which Zeno the Eleatic set for ...
Download PDF (803.6 KB)
Ancient Greek texts concerning Protagoras are collected in section 80 of Diels and Kranz (DK), translated into English in Rosamond Kent Sprague, ed., The Older Sophists. More complete collections appear in Greek and Italian in volume 1 of Mario Untersteiner's Sofisti: Testimonianze e frammenti and Antonio The following is a list of sources cited more than once in the text or works ...
Download PDF (190.5 KB)
Page Count: 272
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Studies in Rhetoric/Communication