We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

With All Deliberate Speed

Implementing Brown v. Board of Education

Edited by Brian J. Daugherity and Charles C. Bolton

Publication Year: 2008

This is the first effort to provide a broad assessment of how well the Brown v. Board of Education decision that declared an end to segregated schools in the United States was implemented. Written by a distinguished group of historians, the twelve essays in this collection examine how African Americans and their supporters in twelve states—Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida, Delaware, Missouri, Indiana, Nevada, and Wisconsin—dealt with the Court’s mandate to desegregate “with all deliberate speed.” The process followed many diverse paths. Some of the common themes in these efforts were the importance of black activism, especially the crucial role played by the NAACP; entrenched white opposition to school integration, which wasn’t just a southern state issue, as is shown in Delaware, Wisconsin, and Indiana; and the role of the federal government, a sometimes inconstant and sometimes reluctant source of support for implementing Brown.

Published by: University of Arkansas Press


pdf iconDownload PDF (23.5 KB)
pp. v-vi

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (45.8 KB)
pp. vii-xvi

The United States Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education decision of May 1954, which declared segregated schools unconstitutional, stands as one of the most important legal pronouncements of the twentieth century. The decision helped spark more than a decade of civil...

read more

Implementing Brown in Arkansas

pdf iconDownload PDF (68.0 KB)
pp. 1-19

Arkansas is home to the first public school in the former Confederate States of America to implement racial desegregation, as well as the high school where arguably the most infamous moment in school desegregation occurred in the 1950s. While Arkansas’s history contains two...

read more

The Cost of Opportunity: School Desegregation’s Complicated Calculus in North Carolina

pdf iconDownload PDF (76.7 KB)
pp. 21-40

Painful as it may be to admit, perhaps the school desegregation experiment has failed. Incompetent efforts (whether halfhearted or ham-fisted) to mix the races in schools engendered tremendous animosity from those who both supported and opposed desegregation.1 If the intent was to...

read more

“Keep on Keeping On”: African Americans and the Implementation of Brown v. Board of Education in Virginia

pdf iconDownload PDF (65.7 KB)
pp. 41-57

The fiftieth anniversary of the Brown v. Board of Education decision (1954) resulted in an outburst of publications and scholarly activity related to the history of U.S. school desegregation. Conferences, journals, books, and films examined the many stories behind Brown and...

read more

The Palmetto Revolution: School Desegregation in South Carolina

pdf iconDownload PDF (113.8 KB)
pp. 59-91

A popular movement for civil rights reform swept the United States in the mid-twentieth century, in the process dramatically reshaping U.S. society and culture. In the South, the civil rights movement marked an opening of the political, educational, and social systems in a way not...

read more

Defiance, Protest, and Compromise: The Struggle to Implement Brown in Georgia, 1950–1973

pdf iconDownload PDF (109.3 KB)
pp. 93-122

This chapter examines the struggle to desegregate schools in the state of Georgia between 1950 and 1973. Georgia’s blacks had long struggled to secure learning for their children. After World War II and before the U.S. Supreme Court handed down...

read more

The Last Holdout: Mississippi and the Brown Decision

pdf iconDownload PDF (59.3 KB)
pp. 123-138

Mississippi resisted the Brown v. Board of Education decision longer than any other southern state; for ten years after the landmark case, public schools in the Magnolia State remained strictly segregated. Finally, after persistent prodding from black parents and grudging support for an end...

read more

A State Divided: Implementation of the Brown Decision in Florida, 1954–1970

pdf iconDownload PDF (61.6 KB)
pp. 139-154

Despite its geographical location, debate has long raged over whether or not Florida is “really” a southern state. Observers have devised various methods by which Florida’s southernness could be measured, arguing that Florida became more or less southern depending on where in the..

read more

Promises of Brown: Desegregating Education in Delaware, 1950–1968

pdf iconDownload PDF (69.7 KB)
pp. 155-173

The long road to and from Brown v. Board of Education (1954) in Delaware began after Delaware State College’s (now Delaware State University) loss of accreditation by the Middle States Association in 1948. State funding inequities between the University of Delaware and...

read more

Border State Ebb and Flow: School Desegregation in Missouri, 1954–1999

pdf iconDownload PDF (90.2 KB)
pp. 175-198

Missouri has long occupied a pivotal place in the history of race relations in the United States. As a border state, Missouri has historically been a crossroads of sorts for racially oriented issues. Indeed, at several different points in time, the entire nation was riveted by events that...

read more

The Complexity of School Desegregation in the Borderland: The Case of Indiana

pdf iconDownload PDF (62.0 KB)
pp. 199-215

In his autobiographical novel The Learning Tree, celebrated photographer, writer and composer Gordon Parks described the rural town inhabited by the Wingers, a poor black family during the 1920s: “Like all other Kansas towns, Cherokee Flats wallowed in the social complexities...

read more

Northern Desegregation and the Racial Politics of Magnet Schools in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

pdf iconDownload PDF (68.8 KB)
pp. 217-230

Conventional histories of Brown v. Board of Education typically do not address the experience of northern school desegregation. Richard Kluger’s Simple Justice, for example, paints a richly detailed portrait of the southern struggle and the U.S. Supreme Court, but merely sketches an outline...

read more

Brown, Integration, and Nevada

pdf iconDownload PDF (64.2 KB)
pp. 231-248

Since Nevada became a state in 1864, its economy has been tied to gambling—first, gambling that ore waited underground, then on gambling itself and the attractions that go with it. Politically, it has been the creature of its dominant industry, whether mining or gaming. Socially, it...


pdf iconDownload PDF (248.2 KB)
pp. 249-327


pdf iconDownload PDF (35.3 KB)
pp. 329-331


pdf iconDownload PDF (516.8 KB)
pp. 333-339

E-ISBN-13: 9781610754675
E-ISBN-10: 1610754670
Print-ISBN-13: 9781557288691
Print-ISBN-10: 1557288690

Page Count: 300
Publication Year: 2008

Research Areas


UPCC logo

Subject Headings

  • African Americans -- Civil rights.
  • Segregation in education -- Law and legislation -- United States -- History.
  • Discrimination in education -- Law and legislation -- United States.
  • You have access to this content
  • Free sample
  • Open Access
  • Restricted Access